Pre-Lean Revolution™

  • PreLean_IMG

Pre-Lean Revolution™



With Pre-Lean Revolution, you’re getting everything but the kitchen sink! Pre-Lean was formulated to provide intense energy, laser-like focus, brute strength, and extended endurance to promote rippling, lean mass. In every serving, you will get an effective dose of intense muscle pumping agents, metabolism boosting ingredients, and all the mind-muscle connection that your body can handle!

  • Caffeine Anhydrous – Caffeine is one of the most clinically-supported ergogenic aids. Raises metabolism, enhances concentration, and promotes reliance on fatty acids for fuel.
  • Citrulline Malate – A dual-threat: Provides huge boosts to training volume with the metabolic intermediate malate and stimulates nitric oxide production with citrulline.
  • Choline Complex – Choline Bitartrate and CDP choline create acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter required for muscle contraction and focus.
  • Beta-alanine ­– Buffers blood acids to squeeze out more reps for better pumps and huge gains.
  • Nitrosigine – The world’s most effective form of arginine works synergistically with citrulline to maintain improved blood flow up to 3 hours.
  • Coumabuterol Complex – 3 key ingredients work together for a comprehensive profile of adrenergic stimulation.
(*To view complete supplement facts click on the ingredient profile tab below)

No other supplement has given attention to ALL the things you want from your pre-workout. Only Pre-Lean Revolution was built for detonating body fat while helping to drive lean mass adaptations and performance enhancement. Supercharge your training sessions with Pre-Lean Revolution.

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L-Citrulline Malate:

Citrulline Malate is a non-essential amino acid that eventually converts to nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is a vasodilator that can help to lower blood pressure and improve blood flow to both organs and muscles.

  • Studies have shown that Citrulline Malate enhances exercise tolerance by reducing levels of blood ammonia and lactate that are typically elevated during strenuous exercise.
  • This ingredient will allow you to train with less rest in between sets and elevate your endurance capacity.
  • A recent research study found individuals who consumed citrulline malate for 15 days were able to increase ATP production during exercise by 34% and improve phospho-creatine resynthesis after exercise by 20%.

Tauric Acid:

Tauric acid, has a myriad of benefits. From helping the body to metabolize fat, improving insulin sensitivity, raising testosterone levels, as an antioxidant, higher performance and quicker recovery during athletic training and increasing cardiovascular health… it goes without saying that tauric acid is a great ingredient to have in your wheelhouse

  • Zhang et al. (2004) found that individuals who supplemented with taurine for 1 week before an exhaustive exercise bout significantly improved time to exhaustion, VO2 max, and maximal workload. It also decreased exercise induced DNA damage.

Inositol Arginine Silicate (NITROSIGINE):

Arginine (NITROSIGINE) is a precursor to nitric oxide and expands blood vessels to optimize blood flow. Silicate is contained within the walls of the arteries to help maintain their structural integrity.

  • These ingredients works in synergy to help increase the blood flow and the structural integrity of the artery walls.
  • Preclinical data has shown that Nitrosigine is superior to standard arginine… with 2x the blood flow in vasodilatation response.

Agmatine Sulfate:

Agmatine Sulfate helps improve nutrient partitioning which leads to an increase in muscle glycogen (carbs stored in muscle tissues) which then leads to more water retained WITHIN the muscle. This creates a fuller look to the muscles and a greater pump while hitting the iron.

  • Agmatine Sulfate also increases NO production by working as a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme NO Synthase.
  • There are studies to suggest that the nutrient partitioning effects of agmatine sulfate are possibly due to its ability to increase the insulin response to carbohydrates. This could be further explained by the increased blood flow to the muscle that occurs with increased NO production.
  • LH and GH levels have been shown to be increased through the effects of Agmatine Sulfate and its possible effects on the hypothalamus.
  • Agmatine has also been shown to manipulate pain receptors which may allow you to train past normal pain thresholds.

GlycoCarn® (Glycine Propionyl-L-Carnitine HCL):

Glycocarn is a highly bioavailable form of Carnitine. Carnitine is crucial in muscle function by regulating energy flow across the cell membranes during strenuous activity.

  • Glycocarn can help increase nitric oxide levels. Increasing Nitric Oxide helps blood flow to organs and muscles and optimizes oxygen and nutrient delivery to the muscles.
  • All this can help to increase aerobic power, stamina, endurance, and recovery.
  • Jacobs et al. (2009) discovered that resistance trained males who supplemented with Glycocarn 90 minutes before exercise were able to increase peak power production (2-15%) and decrease lactic acid accumulation (15-17%).




Beta-Alanine (as Carnosyn):

Beta Alanine is an amino acid that is used to enhance muscular endurance. Reports of increased rep range are common. Also, the benefit is highly noticeable in moderate to high intensity cardio.

  • Beta-Alanine’s effectiveness comes through boosting the synthesis of carnosine. Carnosine acts as an intra muscular buffer to keep the pH from dipping too low during a workout. To keep muscular strength through a workout, you need to have your pH levels optimal. If they drop too low, you have significantly less strength and fatigue quicker.
  • Beta-Alinine synthesizes to carnosine which helps keep your pH levels in check by absorbing positive hydrogen molecules (H+) that are produced during periods of heavy exercise. By absorbing the H+ produced by strenuous exercise, your muscular pH levels are kept at an optimal level which will allow you to train harder and longer!
  • A recent meta-analysis confirmed the ergogenic effect of beta-alanine, showing a 2.85% increase in exercise performance compared to placebo when dosed at ~2/grams daily.

Creatine MagnaPower® (Creatine Magnesium Chelate):

By combining magnesium to the creatine mixture in this compound – it allows (in a similar fashion to COP) the creatine to be absorbed and utilized for anabolic processes and prevents conversion to creatinine though the process of cyclization.

  • Creatine MagnaPower pulls together both creatine and magnesium for the most effective ATP synthesis.
  • The ISSN (International Society of Sports Nutrition) position stand on creatine monohydrate (CM) found that short-term CM supplementation has been reported to improve maximal power/strength (5–15%), work performed during sets of maximal effort muscle contractions (5–15%), single-effort sprint performance (1–5%), and work performed during repetitive sprint performance (5–15%). Long-term CM supplementation appears to enhance the overall quality of training, leading to 5 to 15% greater gains in strength and performance.

COP (Creatinol-O-Phosphate):

One of the biggest features of COP is that it has an extremely high level of absorption where as other forms of creatine can be broken down and destroyed through cyclization (a process by which creatine is often converted to creatinine – which, is useless for building muscles).

  • COP highly resists cyclization and is therefore one of the most bioavailable and effective creatine products on the market.
  • COP may also prolong anaerobic glycolysis in the presence of lactic acid.


As an amino acid, histidine has a great deal of benefits. One is to strengthen the myelin sheath that coats nerve cells and will promote a better “mind muscle” connection.

  • In the body L-histidine combines with beta-alanine to form skeletal muscle carnosine; which plays a crucial role in hydrogen ion buffering and leads to improved exercise performance.
  • Recent research has shown that L-histidine may promote vasodilation and increase performances that require short, explosive bursts.

Vanadyl Sulfate:

Vanadyl sulfate has been shown to significantly improve glycemic control and there-by improve liver and muscle sensitivity to insulin.

  • Studies suggest that vanadyl sulfate helps muscle cells uptake glucose, and may help you perform better and recover faster.
  • Halberstam et al. (1996) found that subjects taking small doses of vanadyl sulfate improved both hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity by enhancing insulin’s inhibitory effect on lipolysis.




Choline Complex (CDP Choline/Choline Bitartrate):

Choline is an essential nutrient for brain health and synaptic plasticity.

  • Choline improves structural integrity, signaling capacity and the fluidity of neural membranes. It’s estimated that close to 90% of the population does not get the recommended amount of choline daily.
  • It has been shown that a dose of 500mg of Choline can boost focus, mood and concentration abilities.
  • This is tantamount to pushing through your workout. Utilizing this effectively dosed compound, you will be able to focus on taking less rest or being distracted during you training. Giving your 110% will really be your 110%.
  • A study conducted by Sun et al. (1999) reported that subjects who supplemented with choline for 4 weeks improved learning performance and memory compared to a placebo group.

Caffeine Anhydrous:

Caffeine Anhydrous is simply caffeine with no water (around .05%). This has been shown to make caffeine anhydrous more potent because the body will absorb it more readily.

  • Although caffeine can affect a wide variety of motor and mental functions it is most commonly used to improve endurance exercise, focus and cognitive performance, and improve energy levels.
  • Caffeine has also been shown to have a thermogenic effect (heating/calorie burning) at rest and may increase the use of fats for fuel during exercise.
  • According to the research higher doses of caffeine, in the 250-450mg range, are needed to provide an ergogenic benefit.
  • In a study conducted by Astorino et al. (2010), active men given caffeine before resistance training were able to increase maximal torque, power, and volume by 5-8%.

Coumabuterol Complex (Norcoclaurine HCL, N-Coumaroyldopamine, N-Caffeoyldopamine):

This complex is combined with three of the most known and effective beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic agonists.

  • These agonists will boost your heart rate, create laser focus, and help utilize body fat from energy expended during your training.


Best known as an alternative for ephedrine, Isopropylnoynephrine has several of the same benefits of ephedrine but not nearly the same side-effects.

  • Isopropylnoynephrine can reduce appetite, increase alertness, burn fat, increase metabolism and increase energy.
  • However, like ephedrine, if you take this too close to bedtime – it could create some insomnia.
  • Stohs et al. (2011) found that a single dose of synephrine given to healthy subjects in a rested state increased resting metabolic rate without any negative influence on blood pressure or cognition.

N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester:

Known as a Nootropic, “Noopept” helps to improve cognitive capacities, memory and the mind’s ability to focus.

  • Using “Noopept” for a workout will significantly increase your focus and give you the mental acuity to push hard through your workout.

Q: What is the best way to take PRE LEAN REVOLUTION?
A: Mix 1 Scoop(10g) with 10oz-12oz of water 20 minutes prior to exercise.

Q: What other MuscleSport products do you recommend stacking with PRE LEAN REVOLUTION?
A: To address your pre, intra, and post workout energy, muscle building, and recovery needs we suggest stacking PRE LEAN REVOLUTION with BCAA REVOLUTION and LEAN WHEY REVOLUTION.

Q: I see a full serving of PRE LEAN REVOLUTION has 300mg of caffeine. Is that amount safe?
A: Generally speaking, yes. A large review by the European Food Safety Authority concluded that a daily safe dose of 400mg is safe for adults. We suggest not taking any other stimulants (like coffee) on the days you take PRE LEAN REVOLUTION. We also recommend starting with a half scoop to assess your tolerance before moving on to a full scoop.

Q: I heard creatine can cause kidney problems and cause cramping. Is that true?
A: Absolutely not. Creatine is the most studied and effective supplement ever…period. Over 500 studies have been done on creatine and none have shown to cause any adverse side effects. However, you should expect to see big improvements in strength, power, and endurance after taking creatine.

Citrulline Malate:
1. Bendahan, D., Mattei, J. P., Ghattas, B., Confort-Gouny, S., Le Guern, M. E., & Cozzone, P. J. (2002). Citrulline/malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle. British journal of sports medicine,36(4), 282-289.
2. Hickner, R. C., Tanner, C. J., Evans, C. A., Clark, P. D., Haddock, A., Fortune, C., … & Mccammon, M. (2006). L-citrulline reduces time to exhaustion and insulin response to a graded exercise test. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 38(4), 660-666.
3. Pérez-Guisado, J., & Jakeman, P. M. (2010). Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(5), 1215-1222.
4. Sureda, A., Córdova, A., Ferrer, M. D., Pérez, G., Tur, J. A., & Pons, A. (2010). L-citrulline-malate influence over branched chain amino acid utilization during exercise. European journal of applied physiology, 110(2), 341-351.

Tauric Acid:
1. Zhang, M., Izumi, I., Kagamimori, S., Sokejima, S., Yamagami, T., Liu, Z., & Qi, B. (2004). Role of taurine supplementation to prevent exercise-induced oxidative stress in healthy young men. Amino acids, 26(2), 203-207.
2. BOUCHAMA, A., YUSUF, A., AL-SEDAIRY, S. U. L. T. A. N., & EL-YAZIGI, A. D. N. A. N. (1993). Alteration of taurine homeostasis in acute heatstroke.Critical care medicine, 21(4), 551-554.
3. Gwacham, N., & Wagner, D. R. (2012). Acute effects of a caffeine-taurine energy drink on repeated sprint performance of American college football players. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 22(2), 109-116.
4. Warskulat, U., Brookmann, S., Felsner, I., Brenden, H., Grether‐Beck, S., & Häussinger, D. (2008). Ultraviolet A induces transport of compatible organic osmolytes in human dermal fibroblasts

1. Kalman, D. S., Feldman, S., Samson, A., & Krieger, D. R. (2015). A clinical evaluation to determine the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of an inositol-stabilized arginine silicate dietary supplement in healthy adult males. Clinical pharmacology: advances and applications, 7, 103.

Agmatine Sulfate:
1. Ahn, S. K., S. Hong, et al. (2011). “Effects of agmatine on hypoxic microglia and activity of nitric oxide synthase.” Brain Res 1373: 48-54.
2. Arndt, M. A., V. Battaglia, et al. (2009). “The arginine metabolite agmatine protects mitochondrial function and confers resistance to cellular apoptosis.” Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 296(6): C1411-1419.
3. Berkels, R., D. Taubert, et al. (2004). “Agmatine signaling: odds and threads.” Cardiovasc Drug Rev 22(1): 7-16.
4. Gao, Y., B. Gumusel, et al. (1995). “Agmatine: a novel endogenous vasodilator substance.” Life Sci 57(8): PL83-86.
5. Haenisch, B., I. von Kugelgen, et al. (2008). “Regulatory mechanisms underlying agmatine homeostasis in humans.” Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 295(5): G1104-1110.
6. Halaris, A. and J. Plietz (2007). “Agmatine: metabolic pathway and spectrum of activity in brain.” CNS Drugs 21(11): 885-900.
7. L-arginine stimulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion through membrane depolarization and independent of nitric oxide.
8. Keynan, O., Mirovsky, Y., Dekel, S., Gilad, V. H., & Gilad, G. M. (2010). Safety and Efficacy of Dietary Agmatine Sulfate in Lumbar Disc‐associated Radiculopathy. An Open‐label, Dose‐escalating Study Followed by a Randomized, Double‐blind, Placebo‐controlled Trial. Pain Medicine, 11(3), 356-368.

1. Long-term glycine propionyl-l-carnitine supplemention and paradoxical effects on repeated anaerobic sprint performance. Jacobs PL, Goldstein ER. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010 Oct 28;7:35. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-7-35.
2. Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine modulates lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide in human subjects. Bloomer RJ, Tschume LC, Smith WA. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2009 May;79(3):131-41. doi: 10.1024/0300-9831.79.3.131.

Carnosyn Beta-Alanine:
1. Hobson, R. M., Saunders, B., Ball, G., Harris, R. C., & Sale, C. (2012). Effects of β-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis. Amino acids, 43(1), 25-37.
2. Stout, J. R., Cramer, J. T., Zoeller, R. F., Torok, D., Costa, P., Hoffman, J. R., … & O’kroy, J. (2007). Effects of β-alanine supplementation on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women. Amino acids,32(3), 381-386.
3. Smith, A. E., Walter, A. A., Graef, J. L., Kendall, K. L., Moon, J. R., Lockwood, C. M., … & Stout, J. R. (2009). Effects of β-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 6(1), 1-9.
4. Baguet, A., Bourgois, J., Vanhee, L., Achten, E., & Derave, W. (2010). Important role of muscle carnosine in rowing performance. Journal of Applied Physiology, 109(4), 1096-1101.
5. Trexler, E. T., Smith-Ryan, A. E., Stout, J. R., Hoffman, J. R., Wilborn, C. D., Sale, C., … & Campbell, B. (2015). International society of sports nutrition position stand: Beta-Alanine. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(1), 1-14.

1. Buford TW, Kreider RB, Stout JR, Greenwood M, Campbell B, Spano M, Ziegenfuss T, Lopez H, Landis J, Antonio J: International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: creatine supplementation and exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2007, 4:6.
2. Earnest CP, Snell PG, Rodriguez R, Almada AL, Mitchell TL: The effect of creatine monohydrate ingestion on anaerobic power indices, muscular strength and body composition. Acta physiologica Scandinavica 1995, 153:207-209.
3. Kreider RB, Ferreira M, Wilson M, Grindstaff P, Plisk S, Reinardy J, Cantler E, Almada AL: Effects of creatine supplementation on body composition, strength, and sprint performance. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 1998, 30:73-82.
4. Lopez, R. M., Casa, D. J., McDermott, B. P., Ganio, M. S., Armstrong, L. E., & Maresh, C. M. (2009). Does creatine supplementation hinder exercise heat tolerance or hydration status? A systematic review with meta-analyses. Journal of athletic training, 44(2), 215-223.
5. Candow, D. G., Chilibeck, P. D., Burke, D. G., Mueller, K. D., & Lewis, J. D. (2011). Effect of different frequencies of creatine supplementation on muscle size and strength in young adults. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(7), 1831-1838.
6. McConell, G. K., Shinewell, J., Stephens, T. J., Stathis, C. G., Canny, B. J., & Snow, R. J. (2005). Creatine supplementation reduces muscle inosine monophosphate during endurance exercise in humans. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 37(12), 2054.
7. Rae, C., Digney, A. L., McEwan, S. R., & Bates, T. C. (2003). Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double–blind, placebo–controlled, cross–over trial. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 270(1529), 2147-2150.

1. Lowery, R. P., Joy, J. M., Dudeck, J. E., Oliveira de Souza, E., McCleary, S. A., Wells, S., … & Wilson, J. M. (2013). Effects of 8 weeks of Xpand (R) 2X pre workout supplementation on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, lean body mass, and strength in resistance trained males. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 10(1), 44.
2. Nicaise, J. (1975). Creatinol O-phosphate (COP) and muscular performance: a controlled clinical trial. Current therapeutic research, clinical and experimental, 17(6), 531.
3. Ormsbee, M. J., Mandler, W. K., Thomas, D. D., Ward, E. G., Kinsey, A. W., Simonavice, E., … & Kim, J. S. (2012). The effects of six weeks of supplementation with multi-ingredient performance supplements and resistance training on anabolic hormones, body composition, strength, and power in resistance-trained men. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 9(1), 49.
4. Shelmadine, B., Cooke, M., Buford, T., Hudson, G., Redd, L., Leutholtz, B., & Willoughby, D. S. (2009). Effects of 28 days of resistance exercise and consuming a commercially available pre-workout supplement, NO-Shotgun®, on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of satellite cell activation, and clinical safety markers in males. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 6(1), 16.

1. Abe, H. (2000). Role of histidine-related compounds as intracellular proton buffering constituents in vertebrate muscle. BIOCHEMISTRY C/C OF BIOKHIMIIA, 65(7), 757-765.
2. Cologna, S. M., Williams, B. J., Russell, W. K., Pai, P. J., Vigh, G., & Russell, D. H. (2011). Studies of histidine as a suitable isoelectric buffer for tryptic digestion and isoelectric trapping fractionation followed by capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry for proteomic analysis. Analytical chemistry, 83(21), 8108-8114.
3. Ranieri-Raggi, M., Moir, A. J., & Raggi, A. (2014). The role of histidine-proline-rich glycoprotein as zinc chaperone for skeletal muscle AMP deaminase. Biomolecules, 4(2), 474-497.
4. Elies, J., Dallas, M., Scragg, J. L., Boyle, J. P., & Peers, C. (2013). OP20 Inhibition of recombinant T-type Ca 2+ channels by hydrogen sulfide. Nitric Oxide, 31, S27-S28.

Vanadyl Sulfate:
1. Halberstam, M., Cohen, N., Shlimovich, P., Rossetti, L., & Shamoon, H. (1996). Oral vanadyl sulfate improves insulin sensitivity in NIDDM but not in obese nondiabetic subjects. Diabetes, 45(5), 659-666.
2. Effect of acute and short-term administration of vanadyl sulphate on insulin sensitivity in healthy active humans.

Choline Complex:
1. Moreno, H., de Brugada, I., & Hall, G. (2013). Chronic dietary choline supplementation modulates attentional change in adult rats. Behavioural brain research, 243, 278-285.
2. Blusztajn, J. K., & Mellott, T. J. (2013). Neuroprotective actions of perinatal choline nutrition. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 51(3), 591-599.
3. Krzysztof Blusztajn, J., & J Mellott, T. (2012). Choline nutrition programs brain development via DNA and histone methylation. Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry-Central Nervous System Agents), 12(2), 82-94.
4. Biasi, E. (2011). The effects of dietary choline. Neuroscience bulletin, 27(5), 330-342.

Caffeine Anhydrous:
1. Harland, B. F. (2000). Caffeine and nutrition. Nutrition, 16(7), 522-526.
2. Goldstein, E. R., Ziegenfuss, T., Kalman, D., Kreider, R., Campbell, B., Wilborn, C., … & Wildman, R. (2010). International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 7(1), 5.
3. Spriet, L. L. (1995). Caffeine and performance. International journal of sport nutrition, 5, S84-S84.
4. Astrup, A., Toubro, S., Cannon, S., Hein, P., Breum, L., & Madsen, J. (1990). Caffeine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of its thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 51(5), 759-767.
5. Hogervorst, E., Bandelow, S., Schmitt, J. A., Jentjens, R., Oliveira, M., Allgrove, J. E., … & Gleeson, M. (2008). Caffeine improves physical and cognitive performance during exhaustive exercise.
6. Woolf, K., Bidwell, W. K., & Carlson, A. G. (2008). The effect of caffeine as an ergogenic aid in anaerobic exercise. International journal of sport nutrition,18(4), 412.
7. Stuart, G. R., Hopkins, W. G., Cook, C., & Cairns, S. P. (2005). Multiple effects of caffeine on simulated high-intensity team-sport performance. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 37(11), 1998.
8. Beck, T. W., Housh, T. J., Schmidt, R. J., Johnson, G. O., Housh, D. J., Coburn, J. W., & Malek, M. H. (2006). The acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on strength, muscular endurance, and anaerobic capabilities. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 20(3), 506-510.
9. McLellan, T. M., Kamimori, G. H., Voss, D. M., Tate, C., & Smith, S. J. (2007). Caffeine effects on physical and cognitive performance during sustained operations. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine, 78(9), 871-877.
10. Lieberman, H. R., Tharion, W. J., Shukitt-Hale, B., Speckman, K. L., & Tulley, R. (2002). Effects of caffeine, sleep loss, and stress on cognitive performance and mood during US Navy SEAL training. Psychopharmacology, 164(3), 250-261.
11. Costill, D. L., Dalsky, G. P., & Fink, W. J. (1977). Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and exercise performance. Medicine and science in sports, 10(3), 155-158.
12. Kovacs, E. M., Stegen, J. H., & Brouns, F. (1998). Effect of caffeinated drinks on substrate metabolism, caffeine excretion, and Performance. Journal of Applied physiology, 85(2), 709-715.
13. Acheson, K. J., Zahorska-Markiewicz, B., Pittet, P., Anantharaman, K., & Jéquier, E. (1980). Caffeine and coffee: their influence on metabolic rate and substrate utilization in normal weight and obese individuals. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 33(5), 989-997.
14. Dulloo, A. G., Geissler, C. A., Horton, T., Collins, A., & Miller, D. S. (1989). Normal caffeine consumption: influence on thermogenesis and daily energy expenditure in lean and postobese human volunteers. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 49(1), 44-50.

Coumabuterol Complex:
1. Bai, G., Yang, Y., Shi, Q., Liu, Z., & Zhang, Q. (2008). Identification of higenamine in Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata as a beta2‐adrenergic receptor agonist1. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 29(10), 1187-1194.
2. Kam, S. C., Do, J. M., Choi, J. H., Jeon, B. T., Roh, G. S., Chang, K. C., & Hyun, J. S. (2012). The relaxation effect and mechanism of action of higenamine in the rat corpus cavernosum. International journal of impotence research, 24(2), 77-83.
3. Tsukiyama, M., Ueki, T., Yasuda, Y., Kikuchi, H., Akaishi, T., Okumura, H., & Abe, K. (2009). Beta2-adrenoceptor-mediated tracheal relaxation induced by higenamine from Nandina domestica Thunberg. Planta medica, 75(13), 1393-1399.
4. Zhou, S. J., & Du, G. Y. (2003). [Effects of higenamine on the cardio-circulatory system]. Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi= Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi= China journal of Chinese materia medica, 28(10), 910-913.
5. Kang, Y. J., Lee, Y. S., Lee, G. W., Lee, D. H., Ryu, J. C., Yun-Choi, H. S., & Chang, K. C. (1999). Inhibition of activation of nuclear factor κB is responsible for inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by higenamine, an active component of aconite root. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 291(1), 314-320.
6. Pyo, M. K., Lee, D. H., Kim, D. H., Lee, J. H., Moon, J. C., Chang, K. C., & Yun-Choi, H. S. (2008). Enantioselective synthesis of (R)-(+)-and (S)-(−)-higenamine and their analogues with effects on platelet aggregation and experimental animal model of disseminated intravascular coagulation.Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters, 18(14), 4110-4114.
7. Park, J. B. (2005). N-coumaroyldopamine and N-caffeoyldopamine increase cAMP via beta 2-adrenoceptors in myelocytic U937 cells. The FASEB journal, 19(6), 497-502.
8. Park, J. B. (2005). N-coumaroyldopamine and N-caffeoyldopamine increase cAMP via beta 2-adrenoceptors in myelocytic U937 cells. The FASEB journal, 19(6), 497-502.

1. Stohs, S. J., et al. Effects of p-synephrine alone and in combination with selected bioflavonoids on resting metabolism, blood pressure, heart rate and self-reported mood changes. Int J Med Sci. 8(4):295-301, 2011.
2. Stohs, S. J., et al. A review of the human clinical studies involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine. Int J Med Sci. 9(7):527-38, 2012.
3. Sale, C., et al. Metabolic and physiological effects of ingesting extracts of bitter orange, green tea and guarana at rest and during treadmill walking in overweight males. International Journal of Obesity 1:10, 2006.
4. Gougeon, R., et al. Increase in the thermic effect of food by adrenergic amines extracted from Citrus aurantium. Obesity Research 13(7):1187-94, 2005.
5. Zenk, J. L., et al. Effect of multi-ingredient weight-loss product on metabolic rate and body composition. Nutrition 21:179-185, 2005.
6. Preuss, H. G., et al. Citrus aurantium as a thermogenic, weight reduction replacement for ephedra: An overview. Journal of Medicine 33:1-4, 2002.
7. Stohs, S. J., et al. A review of the receptor-binding properties of p-synephrine as related to its pharmacological effects. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2001.
8. Stohs, S. J., et al. The safety of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine. Phytotherapy Research, 2011.
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