Thermal BLACK

$79.99

ULTIMATE FAT BURNING POWERHOUSE*

  • – The pinnacle of thermogenic supplements
  • – Supports fat and weight loss*
  • – Increases resting metabolic rate*
  • – Enhances insulin sensitivity*
  • – Suppresses appetite*
  • – Clinically validated ingredients including TeaCrine®

SKU: 9457 Categories: ,
Description

Turn up the heat with Thermal BLACK Series Fat Burner, the new pinnacle of thermogenic supplements. Unlike other fat burners, Thermal BLACK brings more to the table than just a feeling – it actually works, and it works well! With a profile of clinically-validated ingredients, your search for the ultimate fat burner ends here. Take a deeper look into Thermal Black and you will find:

Caffeine Anhydrous and Infinergy™ DiCaffeine Malate – Caffeine is well-known, but this is not your typical caffeine. The addition of malate to two caffeine molecules smooths any agitation from and prolongs the metabolic-boosting effects of caffeine.
CapsiAtra™ Capsaicin – Enhances insulin sensitivity, protecting your hard-working body from storing carbohydrates as body fat and stuffing your muscles full of glycogen.
Isopropylnorsynephrine – Synephrine is found in bitter oranges and is structurally similar to ephedrine, which gives it the capability of increasing fat oxidation, but without the negative side effects.
Zingerone – Ginger is a staple in Eastern medicine, and Zingerone is one of the major reasons why. Zingerone suppresses appetite and prevents nausea.
Hordenine – Induces a burst of adrenaline, giving a huge boost to metabolism while simultaneously enhancing blood flow.

Clearly, Thermal BLACK is on to something, but with a multi-faceted approach to fat burning, Thermal BLACK doesn’t stop there. The rest of the ingredients add neurotransmitter support, reduce stress, crush lipogenic hormone production, provide complete adrenergic stimulation, and enhance anti-oxidation status. Just like Thermal BLACK has definitively differentiated itself from the rest of the thermogenic market, Thermal BLACK will certainly help YOU stand out from your competition!

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

Ingredient Profile

THERMAL NRG COMPLEX

Theacrine (Teacrine):

TeaCrine is concentrated nature-identical theacrine that delivers energy shown to last up to 6 hours.

  • Theacrine’s multi-faceted effects come from the synergistic reactions between two neural pathways: dopaminergic and adenosinergic pathways.
  • By affecting these pathways, Theacrine accelerates metabolism, increases energy production, and enables competitive athletes, active individuals and driven professionals to better their physical and mental performance.
  • TeaCrine also helps to maintain inflammation within the normal range, which helps decrease muscle and joint discomfort during and following exercise.

Higenamine HCL (from Lotus Seed):

Higenamine Hydrochloride is a proven beta 1 and 2 adrenergic agonist; meaning that it can help improve focus, enhance mental clarity, increase energy, and burn body fat.

  • Higenamine has also been shown to open up lung capacity by relaxing the trachea, allowing more oxygen to get into your body during training.
  • Higenamine operates as a stimulant that effects some muscle groups in a way to slow contractions down and some to speed them up. During training – longer muscles get a slower contraction rate – which can be good for muscular endurance. The heart will get a faster contraction rate – meaning a faster heart rate.
  • This will work to create a thermogenic effect… as the maximum heart rate required for fat burning is maintained longer.

Isopropylnorsynephrine (from Bitter Orange):

Best known as an alternative for ephedrine, Isopropylnoynephrine has several of the same benefits of ephedrine but not nearly the same side-effects.

  • Isopropylnoynephrine can reduce appetite, increase alertness, burn fat, increase metabolism and increase energy.
  • However, like ephedrine, if you take this too close to bedtime – it could create some insomnia.
  • Stohs et al. (2011) found that a single dose of synephrine given to healthy subjects in a rested state increased resting metabolic rate without any negative influence on blood pressure or cognition.

Theanine:

L-Theanine is an amino acid, that when consumed produces GABA and glutamate, two neurotransmitters that act on the brain to reduce the perception stress.

  • Research suggests that L-Theanine’s biggest supplemental role may be in taking the “edge” off of other stimulants.
  • A combination of L-Theanine with caffeine is noted to be synergistic in promoting thermogenesis, cognition, and attention.
  • Giesbrecht et al. found the combination of L-theanine and caffeine significantly improved accuracy during task switching, self-reported alertness, and reduced self-reported tiredness.

Cayenne (as Capsicum Annum):

Cayenne has a number of benefits such as helping you burn more fat when you train by targeting fat as an energy source.

  • It can work to keep your blood sugar levels down – thereby blocking excessive fat storage from heightened insulin levels.
  • Moreover, cayenne can boost metabolism and work to act as a mild thermogenic.

CapsiAtra:

CapsiAtra™ is a dihydrocapsiate compound naturally found in CH-19 Sweet peppers that holds clinical benefits in weight management, endurance and metabolism.

  • CapsiAtra™ has the ability to increase resting energy expenditure (REE) – allowing the body to burn off more calories than normal, and stimulate thermogenesis – allowing the body to burn calories off of stored fats.
  • It also enhances glycogen sparing, promoting an increase in energy production through the burning off of fat stored within the body instead of carbohydrates.
  • Galgani et al. (2010) discovered subjects who supplemented with Dihydrocapsiate over a one month period were able to increase their resting metabolic rate on a daily basis compared to placebo.

3,5-Diiodo-L-Thyronine:

A big function of 3,5 is to stimulate the resting metabolic rate – which is the rate at which your body burns calories at rest.

  • Studies have shown that body weight has been reduced significantly in short periods of time (3-4 weeks).

XANTHINE NRG COMPLEX

Caffeine Anhydrous:

Caffeine Anhydrous is simply caffeine with no water (around .05%). This has been shown to make caffeine anhydrous more potent because the body will absorb it more readily.

  • Although caffeine can affect a wide variety of motor and mental functions it is most commonly used to improve endurance exercise, focus and cognitive performance, and improve energy levels.
  • Caffeine has also been shown to have a thermogenic effect (heating/calorie burning) at rest and may increase the use of fats for fuel during exercise.
  • According to the research higher doses of caffeine, in the 250-450mg range, are needed to provide an ergogenic benefit.
  • In a study conducted by Astorino et al. (2010), active men given caffeine before resistance training were able to increase maximal torque, power, and volume by 5-8%

DiCaffeine Malate:

Dicaffeine Malate, as the name implies, is the combination of caffeine and malic acid.

  • Adding malic acid to caffeine is thought to calm the digestive effects of caffeine and thought to replenish the energy produced by caffeine (either through increased fat oxidation or ATP production).
  • Malic acid may also weaken the feeling of a caffeine crash and slow tolerance development to caffeine.

Beta-Phenylethylamine HCL:

Beta-Phenylethylamine is a neuromodulator responsible for the release of norepinephrine and dopamine which can act as powerful mood enhancers.

Cocoa Extract:

Cocoa extract is linked to increased blood flow and insulin sensitivity.

  • Some research suggests that Cocoa Extract can help mitigate the effects of impaired mitochondria – which can help to improve energy production at the cellular level.

N-Acetyl-Tyrosine:

Tyrosine is an essential amino acid whose primary role in the body is as the direct precursor to thyroxine and to the hormones dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.

  • Tyrosine may improve both endurance and anaerobic performance via metabolic and/or neurotransmitter upregulation.
  • Tyrosine also improves mental acuity, focus, and mood by increasing levels of catecholamines found in the bloodstream.
  • A study done at the Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory reported that a dose of L-Tyrosine, when provided to sleep deprived subjects, ameliorated psychomotor performance declines associated with mental fatigue.

Hordenine HCL:

Extracted from the roots of sprouted barley, hordenine has an adrenaline-like effect stemming from its ability to release norandrenaline.

  • This increases heart rate and blood flow.
  • The adrenaline effect is long lasting and does not fade early in your workouts. This will create a boost in athletic performance throughout your entire workout.
  • Hordenine may also increase peripheral blood flow volume and have a positive inotropic effect (increases strength of contraction) upon the heart.
  • Lastly hordenine stimulates the central nervous system and promotes weight loss by enhancing metabolism.

APPETITE SUPRESSION COMPLEX

Alpha Lipoic Acid:

Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA) is a mitochondrial fatty acid that is highly involved in energy metabolism. It is synthesized in the body and can be consumed through eating meats and minimally in some fruits/vegetables.

  • ALA has been shown to keep insulin levels lower and act as a mild appetite suppressant.
  • ALA has also been shown to be of benefit against various forms of oxidation and inflammation. These effects carry on to benefits that protect one from heart diseases, liver diseases, diabetes, and neurological decline with age.
  • ALA is also a potent anti-oxidant compound. It works with mitochondria and the body’s natural anti-oxidant defenses.
  • It is also seen as an anti-aging compound since it can reverse some of the oxidant damage related effects of aging.

Zingerone:

Ginger is a spice that can reduce nausea and ease digestion quite effectively.

  • It is commonly used to treat a myriad of stomach problems.  It helps to reduce everything from heartburn to gas and diarrhea.
  • Ginger is believed to be a mild appetite suppressant. Anecdotal evidence supports people feeling “more full” when taking a ginger supplement.
  • A meta-analysis conducted by Ernst et al. (2000) found ginger was able to reduce nausea induced by seasickness, morning sickness, and chemotherapy induced sickeness.

Raspberry Ketones:

Raspberry ketone is a natural phenolic compound of the red raspberry that have been reported to prevent high-fat diet-induced elevation in body weight and to increase lipolysis in white adipocytes.

  • Raspberry ketones may increase lipolysis by making the cells more sensitive to the effects of the fat burning hormone norepinephrine.
  • Research suggests its potential to influence adiponectin, a hormone that modulates fatty acid catabolism and is inversely correlated with body fat levels

Rauwolscine:

Rauwolscine is a central nervous system stimulant that is classified as an alpha-2 agonist.

  • As an alpha 2 agonist, Rauwolscine will block alpha-2 receptors. This results in the body releasing more norepinephrine – which gives you a feeling of overall well being.
  • As a bonus to blocking the alpha-2 receptors – Rauwolscine may prevent the formation of new fat tissue.
FAQs

Q: What is the best way to take Thermal Black?
A: Take one serving (1 Capsules) in the AM, with 8-10oz of water. To assess your tolerance, take with food initially and take ONLY 1 serving within a 12 hour period.
DO NOT TAKE within 6 hours of bedtime.

Q: Do you recommend combining Thermal Black with pre-workouts or other stimulants?
A: Due to the high caffeine content found in Thermal Black (in order to produce a thermogenic effect) we DO NOT recommend stacking it with your pre-workout or other stimulants.

Q: How is TeaCrine different from caffeine?
A: TeaCrine is molecularly similar to caffeine, but has many unique properties as well. TeaCrine has a longer duration of action, is non-habituating, improves mood and decreases feelings of stress and irritability, and is less likely to disrupt sleep. And while TeaCrine delivers clean energy without habituation, research is underway that shows combining TeaCrine with caffeine can have additive benefits.

Q: What other MuscleSport products do you recommend stacking with Thermal Black?
A: To maximize lean muscle gains and fat loss we recommend stacking Thermal Black with Lean Whey Revolution and BCAA Revolution.

References

Theacrine:
1. Habowski, S. M., Sandrock, J. E., Kedia, A. W., & Ziegenfuss, T. N. (2014). The effects of TeacrineTM, a nature-identical purine alkaloid, on subjective measures of cognitive function, psychometric and hemodynamic indices in healthy humans: a randomized, double-blinded crossover pilot trial. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 11(1), 1-2.
2. Taylor, L., Mumford, P., Roberts, M., Hayward, S., Mullins, J., Urbina, S., & Wilborn, C. (2016). Safety of TeaCrine®, a non-habituating, naturally-occurring purine alkaloid over eight weeks of continuous use. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 13(1), 1-14.
3. Kuhman, D. J., Joyner, K. J., & Bloomer, R. J. (2015). Cognitive Performance and Mood Following Ingestion of a Theacrine-Containing Dietary Supplement, Caffeine, or Placebo by Young Men and Women.Nutrients, 7(11), 9618-9632.

Higenamine:
1. Bai, G., Yang, Y., Shi, Q., Liu, Z., & Zhang, Q. (2008). Identification of higenamine in Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata as a beta2‐adrenergic receptor agonist1. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 29(10), 1187-1194.
2. Kam, S. C., Do, J. M., Choi, J. H., Jeon, B. T., Roh, G. S., Chang, K. C., & Hyun, J. S. (2012). The relaxation effect and mechanism of action of higenamine in the rat corpus cavernosum. International journal of impotence research, 24(2), 77-83.
3. Tsukiyama, M., Ueki, T., Yasuda, Y., Kikuchi, H., Akaishi, T., Okumura, H., & Abe, K. (2009). Beta2-adrenoceptor-mediated tracheal relaxation induced by higenamine from Nandina domestica Thunberg. Planta medica, 75(13), 1393-1399.
4. Zhou, S. J., & Du, G. Y. (2003). [Effects of higenamine on the cardio-circulatory system]. Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi= Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi= China journal of Chinese materia medica, 28(10), 910-913.
5. Kang, Y. J., Lee, Y. S., Lee, G. W., Lee, D. H., Ryu, J. C., Yun-Choi, H. S., & Chang, K. C. (1999). Inhibition of activation of nuclear factor κB is responsible for inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by higenamine, an active component of aconite root. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 291(1), 314-320.
6. Pyo, M. K., Lee, D. H., Kim, D. H., Lee, J. H., Moon, J. C., Chang, K. C., & Yun-Choi, H. S. (2008). Enantioselective synthesis of (R)-(+)-and (S)-(−)-higenamine and their analogues with effects on platelet aggregation and experimental animal model of disseminated intravascular coagulation.Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters, 18(14), 4110-4114.

Isoproplnosynephrine:
1. Stohs, S. J., et al. Effects of p-synephrine alone and in combination with selected bioflavonoids on resting metabolism, blood pressure, heart rate and self-reported mood changes. Int J Med Sci. 8(4):295-301, 2011.
2. Stohs, S. J., et al. A review of the human clinical studies involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine. Int J Med Sci. 9(7):527-38, 2012.
3. Sale, C., et al. Metabolic and physiological effects of ingesting extracts of bitter orange, green tea and guarana at rest and during treadmill walking in overweight males. International Journal of Obesity 1:10, 2006.
4. Gougeon, R., et al. Increase in the thermic effect of food by adrenergic amines extracted from Citrus aurantium. Obesity Research 13(7):1187-94, 2005.
5. Zenk, J. L., et al. Effect of multi-ingredient weight-loss product on metabolic rate and body composition. Nutrition 21:179-185, 2005.
6. Preuss, H. G., et al. Citrus aurantium as a thermogenic, weight reduction replacement for ephedra: An overview. Journal of Medicine 33:1-4, 2002.
7. Stohs, S. J., et al. A review of the receptor-binding properties of p-synephrine as related to its pharmacological effects. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2001.
8. Stohs, S. J., et al. The safety of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine. Phytotherapy Research, 2011.
9. Kaats, G.R. et al. A 60day double-blind, placebo controlled safety study involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract. Food and Chemical Toxicology 55:358-362, 2013.
10. Seifert, J. G., et al. Effect of acute administration of an herbal preparation on blood pressure and heart rate in humans. International Journal of Medical Sciences 8(3):192-197, 2011.
11. Stohs, S. J. and Preuss, H. G. Stereochemical and physiological differences between naturally occurring p-synephrine and synthetic p-synephrine. Journal of Functional Foods 4:2-5, 2012.

Theanine:
1. Park, S. K., Jung, I. C., Lee, W. K., Lee, Y. S., Park, H. K., Go, H. J., … & Rho, S. S. (2011). A combination of green tea extract and l-theanine improves memory and attention in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Journal of medicinal food, 14(4), 334-343.
2. Owen, G. N., Parnell, H., De Bruin, E. A., & Rycroft, J. A. (2008). The combined effects of L-theanine and caffeine on cognitive performance and mood. Nutritional neuroscience, 11(4), 193-198.
3. Giesbrecht, T., Rycroft, J. A., Rowson, M. J., & De Bruin, E. A. (2010). The combination of L-theanine and caffeine improves cognitive performance and increases subjective alertness. Nutritional neuroscience, 13(6), 283-290.

Cayenne:
1. Singletary, Keith. (2011). Red Pepper: Overview of Potential Health Benefits. Nutrition Today, 46 (1), 33-47.
2. Govindarajan V, Sathyanarayana M. Capsicum-production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part V. Impact on physiology, pharmacology, nutrition, and metabolism; structure, pungency, pain, and desensitization sequences. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1991;29:435Y474.
3. Calixto J, Kassuya C, Andre E, Ferreira J. Contribution of natural products to the discovery of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels family and their functions. Pharmacol Ther. 2005;106:179Y208.
4. Conway S. TRPing the switch on pain: an introduction to the chemistry and biology of capsaicin and TRPV1. Chem Soc Rev. 2008;37:1530Y1545.
5. Barceloux D. Pepper and capsaicin (Capsicum and Piper species). In: Barceloux D, ed: Medicial Toxicology of Natural Substances: Foods, Fungi, Medicinal Herbs, Toxic Plants, and Venomous Animals. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons; 2008:71Y76.
6. Cosmetic Ingredients Review Expert Panel. Final Report on the safety assessment of Capsicum annuum extract, Capsicum annuum fruit extract, Capsicum annuum resin, Capsicum annuum fruit powder, Capsicum frutescens fruit, Capsicum frutescens fruit extract, Capsicum frutescens resin, and capsaicin. Int J Toxicol. 2007;26(suppl 1):3Y106.
7. Nakagawa H, Hiura A. Capsaicin, transient receptor potential (TRP) protein subfamilies and the particular relationship between capsaicin receptors and smaller primary sensory neurons. Anat Sci Int. 2006;81:135Y155.
8. Reilly C, Taylor J, Lanza D, Carr B, Crouch D, Yost G. Capsaicinoids cause inflammation and epithelial cell death through activation of vanilloid receptors. Toxicol Sci.
9. Dow J1, Simkhovich BZ, Hale SL, Kay G, Kloner RA. Capsaicin-Induced Cardioprotection. Is Hypothermia or the Salvage Kinase Pathway Involved?
10. Imatake K1, Matsui T, Moriyama M. The effect and mechanism of action of capsaicin on gastric acid output.

CapsiAtra:
1. Galgani, J. E., & Ravussin, E. (2010). Effect of dihydrocapsiate on resting metabolic rate in humans. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 92(5), 1089-1093.
2. Lee, T. A., Li, Z., Zerlin, A., & Heber, D. (2010). Effects of dihydrocapsiate on adaptive and diet-induced thermogenesis with a high protein very low calorie diet: a randomized control trial. Nutrition & metabolism, 7(1), 1.
3. Galgani, J. E., Ryan, D. H., & Ravussin, E. (2010). Effect of capsinoids on energy metabolism in human subjects. British journal of nutrition, 103(01), 38-42.
4. Inoue, N., Matsunaga, Y., Satoh, H., & Takahashi, M. (2007). Enhanced energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans with high BMI scores by the ingestion of novel and non-pungent capsaicin analogues (capsinoids). Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 71(2), 380-389.

Caffeine Anhydrous/DiCaffeine Malate:
1. Harland, B. F. (2000). Caffeine and nutrition. Nutrition, 16(7), 522-526.
2. Goldstein, E. R., Ziegenfuss, T., Kalman, D., Kreider, R., Campbell, B., Wilborn, C., … & Wildman, R. (2010). International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 7(1), 5.
3. Spriet, L. L. (1995). Caffeine and performance. International journal of sport nutrition, 5, S84-S84.
4. Astrup, A., Toubro, S., Cannon, S., Hein, P., Breum, L., & Madsen, J. (1990). Caffeine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of its thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 51(5), 759-767.
5. Hogervorst, E., Bandelow, S., Schmitt, J. A., Jentjens, R., Oliveira, M., Allgrove, J. E., … & Gleeson, M. (2008). Caffeine improves physical and cognitive performance during exhaustive exercise.
6. Woolf, K., Bidwell, W. K., & Carlson, A. G. (2008). The effect of caffeine as an ergogenic aid in anaerobic exercise. International journal of sport nutrition,18(4), 412.
7. Stuart, G. R., Hopkins, W. G., Cook, C., & Cairns, S. P. (2005). Multiple effects of caffeine on simulated high-intensity team-sport performance. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 37(11), 1998.
8. Beck, T. W., Housh, T. J., Schmidt, R. J., Johnson, G. O., Housh, D. J., Coburn, J. W., & Malek, M. H. (2006). The acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on strength, muscular endurance, and anaerobic capabilities. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 20(3), 506-510.
9. McLellan, T. M., Kamimori, G. H., Voss, D. M., Tate, C., & Smith, S. J. (2007). Caffeine effects on physical and cognitive performance during sustained operations. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine, 78(9), 871-877.
10. Lieberman, H. R., Tharion, W. J., Shukitt-Hale, B., Speckman, K. L., & Tulley, R. (2002). Effects of caffeine, sleep loss, and stress on cognitive performance and mood during US Navy SEAL training. Psychopharmacology, 164(3), 250-261.
11. Costill, D. L., Dalsky, G. P., & Fink, W. J. (1977). Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and exercise performance. Medicine and science in sports, 10(3), 155-158.
12. Kovacs, E. M., Stegen, J. H., & Brouns, F. (1998). Effect of caffeinated drinks on substrate metabolism, caffeine excretion, and Performance. Journal of Applied physiology, 85(2), 709-715.
13. Acheson, K. J., Zahorska-Markiewicz, B., Pittet, P., Anantharaman, K., & Jéquier, E. (1980). Caffeine and coffee: their influence on metabolic rate and substrate utilization in normal weight and obese individuals. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 33(5), 989-997.
14. Dulloo, A. G., Geissler, C. A., Horton, T., Collins, A., & Miller, D. S. (1989). Normal caffeine consumption: influence on thermogenesis and daily energy expenditure in lean and postobese human volunteers. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 49(1), 44-50.

Beta-Phenylethylamine:
1. Sabelli HC, Borison RL, Diamond BI, Havdala HS, Narasimhachari N. Phenylethylamine and brain function. Biochem Pharmacol. 1978
2. Calvert R, Vohra S, Ferguson M, Wiesenfeld P. A beating heart cell model to predict cardiotoxicity: effects of the dietary supplement ingredients higenamine, phenylethylamine, ephedrine and caffeine. Food Chem Toxicol. 2015
3. Greenshaw AJ. Functional interactions of 2-phenylethylamine and of tryptamine with brain catecholamines: implications for psychotherapeutic drug action. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1989
4. Nieforth KA. Psychotomimetic phenethylamines. J Pharm Sci. 1971
5. Heuson E, Storgaard M, Huynh TH, Charmantray F, Gefflaut T, Bunch L. Profiling substrate specificity of two series of phenethylamine analogs at monoamine oxidase A and B. Org Biomol Chem. 2014
6. Boulton AA, Juorio AV, Paterson IA. Phenylethylamine in the CNS: effects of monoamine oxidase inhibiting drugs, deuterium substitution and lesions and its role in the neuromodulation of catecholaminergic neurotransmission. J Neural Transm Suppl. 1990

Cocoa Extract:
1. Di Renzo, L., Rizzo, M., Sarlo, F., Colica, C., Iacopino, L., Domino, E., … & De Lorenzo, A. (2013). Effects of dark chocolate in a population of Normal Weight Obese women: a pilot study. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 17(16), 2257-2266.
2. Grassi, D., Lippi, C., Necozione, S., Desideri, G., & Ferri, C. (2005). Short-term administration of dark chocolate is followed by a significant increase in insulin sensitivity and a decrease in blood pressure in healthy persons. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 81(3), 611-614.
3. Monahan, K. D., Feehan, R. P., Kunselman, A. R., Preston, A. G., Miller, D. L., & Lott, M. E. (2011). Dose-dependent increases in flow-mediated dilation following acute cocoa ingestion in healthy older adults. Journal of Applied Physiology, 111(6), 1568-1574.
4. Engler, M. B., Engler, M. M., Chen, C. Y., Malloy, M. J., Browne, A., Chiu, E. Y., … & Mietus-Snyder, M. L. (2004). Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 23(3), 197-204.
5. Mogollon, J. A., Boivin, C., Lemieux, S., Blanchet, C., Claveau, J., & Dodin, S. (2014). Chocolate flavanols and skin photoprotection: a parallel, double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Nutrition journal, 13(1), 1.
6. Allgrove, J. E., Farrell, E., Gleeson, M., Williamson, G., & Cooper, K. (2011). Regular dark chocolate consumption’s reduction of oxidative stress and increase of free-fatty-acid mobilization in response to prolonged cycling.

N-Acetyl Tyrosine:
1. Benedict, C. R., Anderson, G. H., & Sole, M. J. (1983). The influence of oral tyrosine and tryptophan feeding on plasma catecholamines in man. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 38(3), 429-435.
2. Alonso, R., Gibson, C. J., Wurtman, R. J., Agharanya, J. C., & Prieto, L. (1982). Elevation of urinary catecholamines and their metabolites following tyrosine administration in humans. Biological psychiatry, 17(7), 781-790.
3. Agharanya, J. C., Alonso, R., & Wurtman, R. J. (1981). Changes in catecholamine excretion after short-term tyrosine ingestion in normally fed human subjects. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 34(1), 82-87.
4. Acworth, I. N., During, M. J., & Wurtman, R. J. (1988). Tyrosine: effects on catecholamine release. Brain research bulletin, 21(3), 473-477.
5. Neri, D. F., Wiegmann, D., Stanny, R. R., Shappell, S. A., McCardie, A., & McKay, D. L. (1995). The effects of tyrosine on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine.

Hordenine:
1. Barwell, C. J., Basma, A. N., Lafi, M. A. K., & Leake, L. D. (1989). Deamination of hordenine by monoamine oxidase and its action on vasa deferentia of the rat. Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology, 41(6), 421-423.
2. Hapke, HJ, Strathmann, W. (1995). Pharmacological effects of Hordenine. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 1995 Jun;102(6):228-32.
3. Frank, M., Weckman, T. J., Wood, T., Woods, W. E., TAI, C. L., CHANG, S. L., … & Tobin, T. (1990). Hordenine: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and behavioural effects in the horse. Equine veterinary journal, 22(6), 437-441.

Alpha Lipoic Acid:
1. McNeilly, A. M., Davison, G. W., Murphy, M. H., Nadeem, N., Trinick, T., Duly, E., … & McEneny, J. (2011). Effect of α-lipoic acid and exercise training on cardiovascular disease risk in obesity with impaired glucose tolerance. Lipids in health and disease, 10(1), 1.
2. Zembron-Lacny, A., Slowinska-Lisowska, M., Szygula, Z., Witkowski, K., Stefaniak, T., & Dziubek, W. (2009). Assessment of the antioxidant effectiveness of alpha-lipoic acid in healthy men exposed to muscle-damaging exercise. J Physiol Pharmacol, 60(2), 139-43.
3. Sola, S., Mir, M. Q., Cheema, F. A., Khan-Merchant, N., Menon, R. G., Parthasarathy, S., & Khan, B. V. (2005). Irbesartan and lipoic acid improve endothelial function and reduce markers of inflammation in the metabolic syndrome results of the irbesartan and lipoic acid in endothelial dysfunction (island) study. Circulation, 111(3), 343-348.
4. Ranieri, M., Sciuscio, M., Cortese, A. M., Santamato, A., Di Teo, L., Ianieri, G., … & Megna, M. (2009). The Use and Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA), Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA) and Rehabilitation in the Treatment of Back Pain: Effect on Health-Related Quality of Life. International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology, 22(3 suppl), 45-50.

Zingerone:
1. Ernst, E., & Pittler, M. H. (2000). Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. British journal of anaesthesia, 84(3), 367-371.
2. Chaiyakunapruk, N., Kitikannakorn, N., Nathisuwan, S., Leeprakobboon, K., & Leelasettagool, C. (2006). The efficacy of ginger for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a meta-analysis. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 194(1), 95-99.
3. Smith, C., Crowther, C., Willson, K., Hotham, N., & McMillian, V. (2004). A randomized controlled trial of ginger to treat nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 103(4), 639-645.
4. Black, C. D., Herring, M. P., Hurley, D. J., & O’Connor, P. J. (2010). Ginger (Zingiber officinale) reduces muscle pain caused by eccentric exercise. The Journal of Pain, 11(9), 894-903.
5. Wu, K. L., Rayner, C. K., Chuah, S. K., Changchien, C. S., Lu, S. N., Chiu, Y. C., … & Lee, C. M. (2008). Effects of ginger on gastric emptying and motility in healthy humans. European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology, 20(5), 436-440.
6. Wu, K. L., Rayner, C. K., Chuah, S. K., Changchien, C. S., Lu, S. N., Chiu, Y. C., … & Lee, C. M. (2008). Effects of ginger on gastric emptying and motility in healthy humans. European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology, 20(5), 436-440.

Raspberry Ketones:
1. Lopez, H. L., Ziegenfuss, T. N., Hofheins, J. E., Habowski, S. M., Arent, S. M., Weir, J. P., & Ferrando, A. A. (2013). Eight weeks of supplementation with a multi-ingredient weight loss product enhances body composition, reduces hip and waist girth, and increases energy levels in overweight men and women. J Int Soc. Sports Nutr, 10(1), 22.
2. Morimoto, Chie; Satoh, Yurie; Hara, Mariko; Inoue, Shintaro; Tsujita, Takahiro; Okuda, Hiromichi (2005). “Anti-obese action of raspberry ketone”. Life Sciences 77 (2): 194–204.
3. Park, Kyoung (2010). “Raspberry Ketone Increases Both Lipolysis and Fatty Acid Oxidation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes”. Planta Medica 76 (15): 1654–8. doi:10.1055/s-0030-1249860. PMID 20425690.

Rauwolscine:
1. Perry, B. D., & U’Prichard, D. C. (1981). [3 H] Rauwolscine (α-yohimbine): A specific antagonist radioligand for brain α 2-adrenergic receptors. European journal of pharmacology, 76(4), 461-464.
2. Rockhold, R. W., & Gross, F. (1981). Yohimbine diastereoisomers: Cardiovascular effects after central and peripheral application in the rat.Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s archives of pharmacology, 315(3), 227-231.
3. Arthur, J. M., Casańas, S. J., & Raymond, J. R. (1993). Partial agonist properties of rauwolscine and yohimbine for the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase by recombinant human 5-HT 1A receptors. Biochemical pharmacology,45(11), 2337-2341.
4. Wainscott, D. B., Sasso, D. A., Kursar, J. D., Baez, M., Lucaites, V. L., & Nelson, D. L. (1997). [3H] Rauwolscine: an antagonist radioligand for the cloned human 5-hydroxytryptamine2B (5-HT2B) receptor. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s archives of pharmacology, 357(1), 17-24.

Reviews (0)

Reviews

There are no reviews yet.

Be the first to review “Thermal BLACK”

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

nineteen + fifteen =

Warning

While not illegal, some of the ingredients found in this product could lead to a false positive drug test and may also be banned by WADA or other professional organizations such as the NCAA. If you are a professional, college, or amateur athlete whose given sports conduct in and out of competition random drug screens is it highly recommended you check with the appropriate person before taking this product.