Rapid Refuel Revolution™

$79.99

OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE & RECOVERY*

  • – Unique formulation that can function as a killer pre-, intra-, or post-workout
  • – Anabolic & mTor matrix to help pack on lean mass*
  • – Fast digesting proteins & amino acids for muscle growth & recovery*
  • – Supercarbs to help replenish muscle glycogen*
  • – Creatine MagnaPower® to rapidly replenish ATP stores*
  • – Delicious flavors

 

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Description

Rapid Refuel Revolution is a unique formulation that can function as a killer pre-, intra-, or post-workout! However, our lawyers have asked us to advise you not to take it pre-, intra-, AND post-workout, as you will simply become too monstrous. No matter which time you choose, Rapid Refuel Revolution supplies top-notch carbohydrate and protein in an effective 2:1 ratio for ultimate gains.

Fast-digesting proteins and free amino acids – Whey proteins and protein hydrolysates are the fastest, most easily digested proteins available today. Combined with free amino acids, this ramps up muscle anabolism almost instantly.
Cyclodextric Carbohydrate Complex – Provides quick carbohydrates to fill muscles with glycogen and slow carbohydrates to keep the muscles fed.
Citrulline Malate – A dual-threat: Provides huge boosts to training volume and stimulates nitric oxide production. More training volume. Bigger pumps. Maximized gains.
Creatine – The most effective muscle-building supplement ever found. Even more effective when coupled with the Cyclodextric Carbohydrate Complex!
Ursolic Acid – An ayurvedic herb known as Holy Basil. Acts as an antioxidant and adaptogen to resist the harmful effects of free radicals and reduce perceptions of stress.

It is as simple as this: Rapid Refuel Revolution is perfect for getting you started, keeping you going, and allowing you to finish right. Rapid Refuel Revolution is the ultimate glycogen replenishment product. With complex tiers of carbohydrates and mTOR Activators, Rapid Refuel Revolution will help you recover faster after your workouts and drive key nutrients into your muscles in the most efficient way possible.

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

Ingredient Profile

CELLULAR ATP REFUEL MATRIX

L-Taurine:

Taurine, has a myriad of benefits. From helping the body to metabolize fat, improving insulin sensitivity, raising testosterone levels, as an antioxidant, higher performance and quicker recovery during athletic training and increasing cardiovascular health… it goes without saying that Taurine is a great ingredient to have in your wheelhouse

  • Zhang et al. (2004) found that individuals who supplemented with taurine for 1 week before an exhaustive exercise bout significantly improved time to exhaustion, VO2 max, and maximal workload. It also decreased exercise induced DNA damage.

L-Glycine:

Glycine is a non-essential amino acid that is used to help generate muscle tissue, assist with proper cell growth and production, and convert glycogen into energy. It also plays an important role in proper nervous system function.

  • Glycine is required for the biosynthesis of creatine. Glycine increases the body’s creatine levels and helps prevent the breakdown of muscle.
  • In the absence of glycine, damaged muscle tissue cannot be repaired.
  • Current research has suggested that glycine supplementation may increase growth hormone (GH) levels 3-4 hours post exercise via its stimulatory agents acting upon the pituitary gland. This increase in GH theoretically could lead to faster recovery times and greater muscle growth.

L-Alanine:

In the body L-alanine is absorbed in the liver and covered to pyruvate.

  • Pyruvate is crucial for the production of glucose and managing of blood sugar levels.
  • L-Alanine promotes quick energy delivery by stimulating immediate release of glucose into the blood.

L-Carnitine Tartrate:

L-Carnitine is an amino acid that is derived from lysine and methionine and is essential for transporting long-chain fatty acids from the cytosol into the mitochondria for subsequent fat breakdown and energy production.

  • L-Carnitine has also been shown to reduce exercise-induced muscle damage, muscular fatigue, and reduce soreness.
  • A study conducted by Volek et al. (2002) found that supplementation with L-Carnitine daily for one week in healthy resistance trained men was able to reduce markers of muscle damage after weight lifting. It was also discovered that biomarkers of oxidative damage reduced to baseline sooner than placebo.
  • Ho et al. (2010) discovered that middle aged males and females who supplemented with L-Carnitine over a 24-day period experienced less muscle damage and soreness following exercise and had less oxidative markers in serum after exercise.

Pantethine (from Pantothenic Acid):

Pantethine is used in the synthesis of Coenzyme A.

  • Coenzyme A is particularly involved in the making of ATP (energy) from sugars, fats and some proteins (as acetyl CoA). It is also involved in many other biological roles.

Coenzyme Q10:

Coenzyme Q-10 is produced by the human body and is necessary for the basic functioning of cells.

  • CoQ10 plays a critical role in producing energy (ATP) for the body.
  • CoQ10 can also enhance blood flow and protect the blood vessels.
  • CoQ10 can reduce the damage oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein (LDL) can do to blood vessels, as well as reduce plaque buildup in the arteries.
  • CoQ10 may able to reduce exercise induced muscle damage. Kon et al. (2008) found individuals supplementing with CoQ10 daily were able to reduce muscular damage associated with exercise and reduce increases in injury related biomarkers (creatine kinase, myoglobin, leukocytes).

AMINO REPAIR MATRIX

Leucine (Fortified):

Leucine is one of the essential branched chain amino acids (BCAA). By itself it can stimulate muscle protein synthesis; the process responsible for muscle growth and recovery. This is why it is often referred to as the “main” amino acid.

  • Supplementation with at least 2/grams daily leucine has been shown decrease muscle soreness, lessen recovery time between workouts, and increase lean muscle mass.
  • Howatson et al. (2012) discovered that leucine (combined with isoleucine and valine) administered before muscle damaging resistance exercises reduced indices of muscle damage and accelerated recovery in resistance trained males.

L-Glutamine:

L-glutamine is the most prevalent free amino acid in plasma and one of the most prevalent found in muscle tissue.

  • L-Glutamine stimulates muscle protein synthesis and is effective at replenishing energy for muscles (glycogen) after exhaustive exercise which may lead to quicker recovery.
  • L-Glutamine may also increase cell volumization (hydration) and lead to increases in muscle hypertrophy.
  • L-Glutamine may also reduce protein breakdown and support immune function.
  • Lehmkuhl et al. (2003) found individual supplementing with glutamine and creatine monohydrate for 8 weeks increased body mass, lean body mass and initial rate of power production compared to placebo.

Glutamine Peptides (L-Alanyl-L-Glutamine, L-Glycyl-L-Glutamine):

These are peptides of L-Glutamine that serve the same purpose however, work from a different aspect.

  • They are much more stable and soluble in water. Therefore, they have a higher degree of bioavailability.
  • While it would be great to load up on Glutamine Peptides, the body can only take so much at one time.
  • This is why they are brought in to augment glutamine rather than be the main source.

ANABOLIC MUSCLE AKT/mTOR MATRIX

Creatine MagnaPower (Creatine Magnesium Chelate):

By combining magnesium to the creatine mixture in this compound – it allows (in a similar fashion to COP) the creatine to be absorbed and utilized for anabolic processes and prevents conversion to creatinine though the process of cyclization.

  • Creatine MagnaPower pulls together both creatine and magnesium for the most effective ATP synthesis.
  • The ISSN (International Society of Sports Nutrition) position stand on creatine monohydrate (CM) found that short-term CM supplementation has been reported to improve maximal power/strength (5–15%), work performed during sets of maximal effort muscle contractions (5–15%), single-effort sprint performance (1–5%), and work performed during repetitive sprint performance (5–15%). Long-term CM supplementation appears to enhance the overall quality of training, leading to 5 to 15% greater gains in strength and performance.

Citrulline L-Malate (2:1):

Citrulline Malate is a non-essential amino acid that eventually converts to nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is a vasodilator that can help to lower blood pressure and improve blood flow to both organs and muscles.

  • Studies have shown that Citrulline Malate enhances exercise tolerance by reducing levels of blood ammonia and lactate that are typically elevated during strenuous exercise.
  • This ingredient will allow you to train with less rest in between sets and elevate your endurance capacity.
  • A recent research study found individuals who consumed citrulline malate for 15 days were able to increase ATP production during exercise by 34% and improve phospho-creatine resynthesis after exercise by 20%.

D-Ribose:

Dribose is a type of sugar that is produced in the body. The body can use it as an energy source, but supplementation with D-ribose has been shown to benefit athletic performance.

  • D-ribose has been shown to improve ATP recovery and nitrogen recycling
  • It may also prevent symptoms like cramping, pain, and stiffness after exercise.
  • A study conducted by Omran et al. (2003) found subjects who supplemented with D-ribose during an exhaustive week long exercise protocol had greater rates of ATP replenishment in their muscles when compared to placebo.

HydroMax (Glycerol):

Glycerol (1,2,3-propanetriol) is a colorless, odorless, sweet tasting sugar alcohol. When consumed glycerol is rapidly absorbed primarily in the small intestine, distributed equally among all fluid compartments, and promotes hyperhydration by inducing an osmotic gradient.

  • This brings potential benefits for endurance and stamina events, including adaptation to environmental heat/humidity stress, along with promoting blood flow associated with resistance training.
  • Glycerol has also been shown to help athletes store extra water, delaying the need for hydration. This suggests improved efficiency in exercise, thermoregulation and decreased physiological stress.
  • In addition, glycerol enhances plasma and intramuscular volume expansion, producing a more engorged muscular appearance.

4-HydroxylsoLeucine:

4-Hydroxyisoleucine is a compound found in Fenugreek that helps with glucose metabolism.

  • It has been shown to amplify nutrient uptake at the cellular level through a carbohydrate-induced insulin secretion.
  • This allows proteins, creatine, and carbohydrates to be better absorbed and utilized at the cellular level.

Phosphatidylcholine:

Phosphatidylcholine is a phospholipid with a choline attachment and is found in soy lecithin.

  • Phosphatidylcholine has been shown to aid in the metabolism of fat, increasing nerve signaling capability and maintaining cell structure.
  • It may also decrease fatigue and replenish neurotransmitters for optimal muscle recovery.

Phosphatidylserine (PS):

Phosphatidylserine is a phospholipid found in cell membranes and is most concentrated in the brain where it comprises 15% of the total phospholipid pool.

  • PS is involved in governing membrane fluidity and therefore in the regulation of biological cell activities.
  • PS also modulates the activity of receptors, enzymes, ion channels and signaling molecules.
  • Research has shown PS can improve mood, cognitive function, performance, endocrine response to stress, and decrease soreness following exercise.

Rhodolia Extract:

Rhodiola rosea root extract has a wide range of adaptogenic functions, which means it may help deal with stress and the unwanted effects on the body.

  • One way that Rhodiola may help is by supporting the neurological mechanisms of dealing with stress.
  • It may also reduce fatigue and exhaustion in prolonged stressful situations.
  • Research suggests Rhodiola can have a positive effect on cognition, feelings of well-being, and decrease symptoms of depression.
  • A study conducted by Edwards et al. (2012) found rhodiola extract twice daily for 4 weeks in persons with life and work-related stress was greatly able to reduce dysfunction and fatigue associated with stress in a time-dependent manner.

Ursolic Acid (Rosemary Leaf/Holy Basil):

Holy Basil is an ayurvetic herb which has historically been used to treat a variety of general ailments.

  • It recently has been shown to hold scientific worth in the areas of liver protection and general anti-oxidant activity, as well as being classified as an adaptogen (reducing the effects of stress on the body).
  • Bhattacharyya et al. (2008) found holy basil extract was able to reduce anxiety and its related depression/stress over 60 days of supplementation in a population of persons with Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

Coffee Berry Fruit Concentrate:

Helps to aid in the process of controlling body weight and energy metabolism by boosting brain-derived neuro-trophic factor (BDNF).

Alpha Lipoic Acid:

Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA) is a mitochondrial fatty acid that is highly involved in energy metabolism. It is synthesized in the body and can be consumed through eating meats and minimally in some fruits/vegetables.

  • In supplement form, ALA has shown benefit against various forms of oxidation and inflammation. These effects carry on to benefits that protect one from heart diseases, liver diseases, diabetes, and neurological decline with age.
  • ALA is also a potent anti-oxidant compound. It works with mitochondria and the body’s natural anti-oxidant defenses.
  • It is also seen as an anti-aging compound since it can reverse some of the oxidant damage related effects of aging.

Tart Cherry Extract:

Tart cherry extract contain high amounts of compounds called anthocyanins that can reduce inflammation in the body and help reduce muscular soreness.

  • Tart cherry also operates as a powerful antioxidant to fight free radicals and helps support brain health.

MSM (MethylSulfonyMethane):

Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a major sulfur-containing compound commonly found in the diet and assists with the formation of antioxidants.

  • It is a clear sulfur donator to antioxidants like glutathione.
  • Alongside being a sulfur donator to antioxidants, MSM assists in the breakdown of unhealthy calcium deposits for which some of these deposits can be a cause of joint issues.
  • MSM can assist with improving joint flexibility, reduce joint stiffness and swelling, and assist in the formation of collagen.
  • A recent study in Japan on rats showed in an accepted human osteoarthritis model showed decreased degeneration of cartilage at the joint surface in the knee joints.

Whey Protein Isolate:

Whey protein isolates digest and absorb rapidly and are, gram for gram, the most refined and purest form of protein (90-98% pure protein).

  • It is also a potent stimulator of muscle protein synthesis due to its ability to causes a rapid increase in amino acids found in the blood stream.
  • This form of whey contains little to no lactose so it may be beneficial for individuals who experience GI problems. Also due to the refinement process whey isolate contains little fat, carbs, and milk sugars.
  • A 2006 study conducted by Cribb et al. found recreational bodybuilders who supplemented with whey protein isolate in conjunction with a 10 week resistance training program achieved greater gains in lean mass, strength, and decreases in body fat compared to a placebo group.

Whey Protein Concentrate:

Whey protein concentrate is the most common form of whey, a byproduct formed when acid is added to milk.

  • Whey protein concentrate is the closest to whole food compared to other forms of protein and is 75-85% pure protein after filtration.
  • A growing body of evidence suggests that dairy protein, and whey in particular may: 1) stimulate the greatest rise in muscle protein synthesis, 2) result in greater muscle cross-sectional area when combined with chronic resistance training, and 3) at least in younger individuals, enhance exercise recovery.
FAQs

Q: What is the best way to take Rapid Refuel Revolution?
A: Mix 2 Scoops (70g) with 16oz-20oz of water immediately after exercise.

Q: What is glycogen and what does it do?
A: Glycogen, in the simplest sense, are carbohydrates that are stored in muscles (opposed to glucose which is found in the blood stream). Glycogen provides the main energy source for higher intensity activities such as weight lifting and HIIT type training.

Q: What other MuscleSport products do you recommend stacking with Rapid Refuel Revolution?
A: To make a potent stimulant free pre-workout concoction we recommend stacking Rapid Refuel Revolution with NeuroVol Revolution.

References

L-Taurine:
1. Zhang, M., Izumi, I., Kagamimori, S., Sokejima, S., Yamagami, T., Liu, Z., & Qi, B. (2004). Role of taurine supplementation to prevent exercise-induced oxidative stress in healthy young men. Amino acids, 26(2), 203-207.
2. BOUCHAMA, A., YUSUF, A., AL-SEDAIRY, S. U. L. T. A. N., & EL-YAZIGI, A. D. N. A. N. (1993). Alteration of taurine homeostasis in acute heatstroke.Critical care medicine, 21(4), 551-554.
3. Gwacham, N., & Wagner, D. R. (2012). Acute effects of a caffeine-taurine energy drink on repeated sprint performance of American college football players. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 22(2), 109-116.
4. Warskulat, U., Brookmann, S., Felsner, I., Brenden, H., Grether‐Beck, S., & Häussinger, D. (2008). Ultraviolet A induces transport of compatible organic osmolytes in human dermal fibroblasts. Experimental dermatology, 17(12), 1031-1036.

L-Glycine:
1. Wax, B., Hilton, L., Vickers, B., Gilliland, K., & Conrad, M. (2013). Effects of glycine-arginine-alpha-ketoisocaproic acid supplementation in college-age trained females during multi-bouts of resistance exercise. J Diet Suppl, 10(1), 6-16.
2. Nelson, M. J., Harris, M. B., Boluyt, M. O., Hwang, H. S., & Starnes, J. W. (2011). Effect of N-2-mercaptopropionyl glycine on exercise-induced cardiac adaptations. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 300(4), R993-R1000..
3. Jacobs, P. L., & Goldstein, E. R. (2010). Long-term glycine propionyl-l-carnitine supplemention and paradoxical effects on repeated anaerobic sprint performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 7, 35. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-7-35
4. Bloomer, R. J., Tschume, L. C., & Smith, W. A. (2009). Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine modulates lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide in human subjects. [Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]. Int J Vitam Nutr Res, 79(3), 131-141.
5. Jacobs, P. L., Goldstein, E. R., Blackburn, W., Orem, I., & Hughes, J. J. (2009). Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine produces enhanced anaerobic work capacity with reduced lactate accumulation in resistance trained males. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 6, 9. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-6-9

L-Carnitine Tartrate:
1. Kraemer, W. J., Volek, J. S., French, D. N., Rubin, M. R., Sharman, M. J., Gómez, A. L., … & Hakkinen, K. (2003). The effects of L-carnitine L-tartrate supplementation on hormonal responses to resistance exercise and recovery. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 17(3), 455-462.
2. Spiering, B. A., Kraemer, W. J., Vingren, J. L., Hatfield, D. L., Fragala, M. S., Ho, J. Y., … & Volek, J. S. (2007). Responses of criterion variables to different supplemental doses of L-carnitine L-tartrate. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 21(1), 259-264.
3. Ho, J. Y., Kraemer, W. J., Volek, J. S., Fragala, M. S., Thomas, G. A., Dunn-Lewis, C., … & Maresh, C. M. (2010). l-Carnitine l-tartrate supplementation favorably affects biochemical markers of recovery from physical exertion in middle-aged men and women. Metabolism, 59(8), 1190-1199.
4. Broad, E. M., Maughan, R. J., & Galloway, S. D. (2008). Carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism during exercise after oral carnitine supplementation in humans.
5. Dehghani, M., Shakerian, S., Nejad, S. H., & Gharib-Naseri, M. K. (2015). Effects of L-Carnitine L-Tartrate Acute Consumption on Lipid Metabolism, Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max), and distance run Following Aerobic Exhaustive Exercise on Treadmill in Elite Athletes wrestling. The AYER, 2, 189-195.

Pantethine:
1. Brown, G. M. (1959). The metabolism of pantothenic acid. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 234, 370-378.
2. Novelli, G. D., & Lipmann, F. (1950). The catalytic function of coenzyme A in citric acid synthesis. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 182(1), 213-228.

Coenzyme Q10:
1. Lee, B. J., Huang, Y. C., Chen, S. J., & Lin, P. T. (2012). Coenzyme Q10 supplementation reduces oxidative stress and increases antioxidant enzyme activity in patients with coronary artery disease. Nutrition, 28(3), 250-255.
2. Dai, Y. L., Luk, T. H., Yiu, K. H., Wang, M., Yip, P. M., Lee, S. W., … & Siu, C. W. (2011). Reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction by coenzyme Q10 supplement improves endothelial function in patients with ischaemic left ventricular systolic dysfunction: a randomized controlled trial.Atherosclerosis, 216(2), 395-401.
3. Smith-Ryan, A., & Antonio, J. (Eds.). (2013). Sports Nutrition & Performance Enhancing Supplements. Linus Learning.

Leucine:
1. Norton, L. E., & Layman, D. K. (2006). Leucine regulates translation initiation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle after exercise. The Journal of nutrition, 136(2), 533S-537S.
2. Shimomura, Y., Inaguma, A., Watanabe, S., Yamamoto, Y., Muramatsu, Y., Bajotto, G., … & Mawatari, K. (2010). Branched-chain amino acid supplementation before squat exercise and delayed-onset muscle soreness.International journal of sport nutrition, 20(3), 236.
3. Nicastro, H., Artioli, G. G., dos Santos Costa, A., Solis, M. Y., Da Luz, C. R., Blachier, F., & Lancha Jr, A. H. (2011). An overview of the therapeutic effects of leucine supplementation on skeletal muscle under atrophic conditions. Amino Acids, 40(2), 287-300.
4. Howatson, G., Hoad, M., Goodall, S., Tallent, J., Bell, P. G., & French, D. N. (2012). Exercise-induced muscle damage is reduced in resistance-trained males by branched chain amino acids: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 9(1), 20.

Glutamine/Glutamine Peptides:
1. Welbourne, T. C. (1995). “Increased plasma bicarbonate and growth hormone after an oral glutamine load”. The American journal of clinical nutrition 61 (5): 1058–1061.
2. Morlion, B. J.; Stehle, P.; Wachtler, P.; Siedhoff, H. P.; Köller, M.; König, W.; Fürst, P.; Puchstein, C. (1998). “Total Parenteral Nutrition with Glutamine Dipeptide After Major Abdominal Surgery”. Annals of Surgery 227 (2): 302–308.
3. Lee, W. J.; Hawkins, R. A.; Viña, J. R.; Peterson, D. R. (1998). “Glutamine transport by the blood-brain barrier: A possible mechanism for nitrogen removal”. The American journal of physiology 274
4. Todorova, V. K., Kaufmann, Y., Luo, S., & Klimberg, V. S. (2011). Tamoxifen and raloxifene suppress the proliferation of estrogen receptor-negative cells through inhibition of glutamine uptake. [Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, Non-P.H.S.]. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol, 67(2), 285-291.
5. Bowtell, J. L., Gelly, K., Jackman, M. L., Patel, A., Simeoni, M., & Rennie, M. J. (1999). Effect of oral glutamine on whole body carbohydrate storage during recovery from exhaustive exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology,86(6), 1770-1777.

Creatine MagnaPower:
1. Wheelwright, D. C., & Ashmead, S. D. (2000). U.S. Patent No. 6,114,379. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
2. Brilla, L. R., Giroux, M. S., Taylor, A., & Knutzen, K. M. (2003). Magnesium-creatine supplementation effects on body water. Metabolism, 52(9), 1136-1140.
3. Baldwin, D., Robinson, P. K., Zierler, K. L., & Lilienthal Jr, J. L. (1952). Interrelations of magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, and creatine in skeletal muscle of man. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 31(9), 850.
4. Morrison, J. F., O’Sullivan, W. J., & Ogston, A. G. (1961). Kinetic studies of the activation of creatine phosphoryltransferase by magnesium. Biochimica et biophysica acta, 52(1), 82-96.

Citrulline Malate:
1. Bendahan, D., Mattei, J. P., Ghattas, B., Confort-Gouny, S., Le Guern, M. E., & Cozzone, P. J. (2002). Citrulline/malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle. British journal of sports medicine,36(4), 282-289.
2. Hickner, R. C., Tanner, C. J., Evans, C. A., Clark, P. D., Haddock, A., Fortune, C., … & Mccammon, M. (2006). L-citrulline reduces time to exhaustion and insulin response to a graded exercise test. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 38(4), 660-666.
3. Pérez-Guisado, J., & Jakeman, P. M. (2010). Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(5), 1215-1222.
4. Sureda, A., Córdova, A., Ferrer, M. D., Pérez, G., Tur, J. A., & Pons, A. (2010). L-citrulline-malate influence over branched chain amino acid utilization during exercise. European journal of applied physiology, 110(2), 341-351.

D-Ribose:
1. Effects of oral D-ribose supplementation on anaerobic capacity and selected metabolic markers in healthy males. Kreider RB, Melton C, Greenwood M, Rasmussen C, Lundberg J, Earnest C, Almada A. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003 Mar;13(1):76-86.
2. Cellular protection during oxidative stress: a potential role for D-ribose and antioxidants. Addis P, Shecterle LM, St Cyr JA. J Diet Suppl. 2012 Sep;9(3):178-82.

Glycerol:
1. Bartos, J. (2013). A uniquely optimized, highly concentrated powdered form of glycerol delivering next-level hydration and next-gen product potential http://astromicnutrition.com/HydroMax_WhitePaper.pdf
2. Riedesel, M. L., Allen, D. Y., Peake, G. T., & Al-Qattan, K. (1987). Hyperhydration with glycerol solutions. Journal of Applied Physiology, 63(6), 2262-2268.
3. Lyons, T. P., Riedesel, M. L., Meuli, L. E., & Chick, T. W. (1990). Effects of glycerol-induced hyperhydration prior to exercise in the heat on sweating and core temperature. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 22(4), 477-483.
4. Goulet, E. D., Robergs, R. A., Labrecque, S., Royer, D., & Dionne, I. J. (2006). Effect of glycerol-induced hyperhydration on thermoregulatory and cardiovascular functions and endurance performance during prolonged cycling in a 25 C environment. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 31(2), 101-109.
5. Montner, P., Stark, D. M., Riedesel, M. L., Murata, G., Robergs, R., Timms, M., & Chick, T. W. (1996). Pre-exercise glycerol hydration improves cycling endurance time. International journal of sports medicine, 17(1), 27-33.

4-Hydroxyisoleucine:
1. Chevassus, H., Molinier, N., Costa, F., Galtier, F., Renard, E., & Petit, P. (2009). A fenugreek seed extract selectively reduces spontaneous fat consumption in healthy volunteers. European journal of clinical pharmacology, 65(12), 1175-1178.
2. Wilborn, C., Taylor, L., Poole, C., Foster, C., Willoughby, D., & Kreider, R. (2010). Effects of a Purported Aromatase and 5 α-Reductase Inhibitor on Hormone Profiles in College-Age Men. International journal of sport nutrition,20(6), 457.
3. Steels, E., Rao, A., & Vitetta, L. (2011). Physiological Aspects of Male Libido Enhanced by Standardized Trigonella foenum‐graecum Extract and Mineral Formulation. Phytotherapy Research, 25(9), 1294-1300.
4. Kochhar, A., & Nagi, M. (2005). Effect of supplementation of traditional medicinal plants on blood glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetics: a pilot study. Journal of medicinal food, 8(4), 545-549.
5. Gupta, A., Gupta, R., & Lal, B. (2001). Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds on glycaemic control and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a double blind placebo controlled study. The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, 49, 1057-1061.

Phosphatidylcholine:
1. The effect of lecithin supplementation on plasma choline concentrations during a marathon. Buchman AL, Awal M, Jenden D, Roch M, Kang SH. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Nov-Dec;19(6):768-70.
2. The effects of choline supplementation on physical performance. Warber JP, Patton JF, Tharion WJ, Zeisel SH, Mello RP, Kemnitz CP, Lieberman HR. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2000 Jun;10(2):170-81.
3. Effect of choline supplementation on fatigue in trained cyclists. Spector SA, Jackman MR, Sabounjian LA, Sakkas C, Landers DM, Willis WT. Department of Neurology, St. Joseph’s Hospital, Phoenix, AZ 85001, USA. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995 May;27(5):668-73.

Phosphatidylserine:
1. Parker, A. G., Gordon, J., Thornton, A., Byars, A., Lubker, J., Bartlett, M., … & Greenwood, M. (2011). The effects of IQPLUS Focus on cognitive function, mood and endocrine response before and following acute exercise.Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 8(1), 1-6.
2. Jorissen, B. L., Brouns, F. J. P. H., Van Boxtel, M. P., Ponds, R. W., Verhey, F. R., Jolles, J., & Riedel, W. J. (2000). The influence of soy-derived phosphatidylserine on cognition in age-associated memory impairment.Nutritional neuroscience, 4(2), 121-134.
3. Kingsley, M. I., Miller, M., Kilduff, L. P., McENENY, J. A. N. E., & Benton, D. (2006). Effects of phosphatidylserine on exercise capacity during cycling in active males. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 38(1), 64-71.
4. Jäger, R., Purpura, M., Geiss, K. R., Weiß, M., Baumeister, J., Amatulli, F., … & Herwegen, H. (2007). The effect of phosphatidylserine on golf performance. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 4(1), 1-5.
5. Kingsley, M. I., Kilduff, L. P., McEneny, J., Dietzig, R. E., & Benton, D. (2006). Phosphatidylserine supplementation and recovery following downhill running. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 38(9), 1617-1625.

Rhodolia Extract:
1. Hung, S. K., Perry, R., & Ernst, E. (2011). The effectiveness and efficacy of Rhodiola rosea L.: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.Phytomedicine, 18(4), 235-244.
2. Edwards, D., Heufelder, A., & Zimmermann, A. (2012). Therapeutic Effects and Safety of Rhodiola rosea Extract WS® 1375 in Subjects with Life‐stress Symptoms–Results of an Open‐label Study. Phytotherapy Research, 26(8), 1220-1225.
3. Spasov, A. A., Wikman, G. K., Mandrikov, V. B., Mironova, I. A., & Neumoin, V. V. (2000). A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of the stimulating and adaptogenic effect of Rhodiola rosea SHR-5 extract on the fatigue of students caused by stress during an examination period with a repeated low-dose regimen. Phytomedicine, 7(2), 85-89.
4. Shevtsov, V. A., Zholus, B. I., Shervarly, V. I., Vol’skij, V. B., Korovin, Y. P., Khristich, M. P., … & Wikman, G. (2003). A randomized trial of two different doses of a SHR-5 Rhodiola rosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work. Phytomedicine, 10(2), 95-105.
5. Darbinyan, V., Aslanyan, G., Amroyan, E., Gabrielyan, E., Malmström, C., & Panossian, A. (2007). Clinical trial of Rhodiola rosea L. extract SHR-5 in the treatment of mild to moderate depression. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry,61(5), 343-348.

Ursolic Acid (Holy Basil:
1. Bhattacharyya, D., Sur, T. K., Jana, U., & Debnath, P. K. (2008). Controlled programmed trial of Ocimum sanctum leaf on generalized anxiety disorders.Nepal. Med. Coll. J, 10(3), 176-179.

Coffee Berry Fruit Extract:
1. For a list of research studies go to http://www.coffeeberry.com/initial-research-0

Alpha Lipoic Acid:
1. McNeilly, A. M., Davison, G. W., Murphy, M. H., Nadeem, N., Trinick, T., Duly, E., … & McEneny, J. (2011). Effect of α-lipoic acid and exercise training on cardiovascular disease risk in obesity with impaired glucose tolerance. Lipids in health and disease, 10(1), 1.
2. Zembron-Lacny, A., Slowinska-Lisowska, M., Szygula, Z., Witkowski, K., Stefaniak, T., & Dziubek, W. (2009). Assessment of the antioxidant effectiveness of alpha-lipoic acid in healthy men exposed to muscle-damaging exercise. J Physiol Pharmacol, 60(2), 139-43.
3. Sola, S., Mir, M. Q., Cheema, F. A., Khan-Merchant, N., Menon, R. G., Parthasarathy, S., & Khan, B. V. (2005). Irbesartan and lipoic acid improve endothelial function and reduce markers of inflammation in the metabolic syndrome results of the irbesartan and lipoic acid in endothelial dysfunction (island) study. Circulation, 111(3), 343-348.
4. Ranieri, M., Sciuscio, M., Cortese, A. M., Santamato, A., Di Teo, L., Ianieri, G., … & Megna, M. (2009). The Use and Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA), Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA) and Rehabilitation in the Treatment of Back Pain: Effect on Health-Related Quality of Life. International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology, 22(3 suppl), 45-50.

Tart Cherry Extract:
1. Connolly, D. A. J., McHugh, M. P., & Padilla-Zakour, O. I. (2006). Efficacy of a tart cherry juice blend in preventing the symptoms of muscle damage.British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(8), 679-683.
2. Howatson, G., McHugh, M. P., Hill, J. A., Brouner, J., Jewell, A. P., Van Someren, K. A., … & Howatson, S. A. (2010). Influence of tart cherry juice on indices of recovery following marathon running. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 20(6), 843-852.
3. Kuehl, K. S., Perrier, E. T., Elliot, D. L., & Chesnutt, J. C. (2010). Research article Efficacy of tart cherry juice in reducing muscle pain during running: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 7, 17.
4. Sumners, D. P., Dyer, A., Fox, P., Mileva, K. N., & Bowtell, J. (2011). Montmorency cherry juice reduces muscle damage caused by intensive strength exercise.

MSM:
1. Debbi, E. M., Agar, G., Fichman, G., Ziv, Y. B., Kardosh, R., Halperin, N., … & Debi, R. (2011). Efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane supplementation on osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled study. BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 11(1), 1.
2. Kalman, D. S., Feldman, S., Scheinberg, A. R., Krieger, D. R., & Bloomer, R. J. (2012). Influence of methylsulfonylmethane on markers of exercise recovery and performance in healthy men: a pilot study. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 9(1), 1-11.
3. Barmaki, S., Bohlooli, S., Khoshkhahesh, F., & Nakhostin-Roohi, B. (2012). Effect of methylsulfonylmethane supplementation on exercise-Induced muscle damage and total antioxidant capacity. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness, 52(2), 170-174.
4. Ezaki, J., Hashimoto, M., Hosokawa, Y., & Ishimi, Y. (2013). Assessment of safety and efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane on bone and knee joints in osteoarthritis animal model. Journal of bone and mineral metabolism, 31(1), 16-25.

Whey Protein Isolate:
1. Hayes, A., & Cribb, P. J. (2008). Effect of whey protein isolate on strength, body composition and muscle hypertrophy during resistance training. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care, 11(1), 40-44.
2. Pal, S., Ellis, V., & Dhaliwal, S. (2010). Effects of whey protein isolate on body composition, lipids, insulin and glucose in overweight and obese individuals. British journal of nutrition, 104(05), 716-723.
3. Burd, N. A., Yang, Y., Moore, D. R., Tang, J. E., Tarnopolsky, M. A., & Phillips, S. M. (2012). Greater stimulation of myofibrillar protein synthesis with ingestion of whey protein isolate v. micellar casein at rest and after resistance exercise in elderly men. British Journal of nutrition, 108(06), 958-962.
4. Cooke, M. B., Rybalka, E., Stathis, C. G., Cribb, P. J., & Hayes, A. (2010). Whey protein isolate attenuates strength decline after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 7(1), 30.
5. Renan, M., Mekmene, O., Famelart, M. H., Guyomarc’h, F., Arnoult-Delest, V., Pâquet, D., & Brulé, G. (2006). pH-Dependent behaviour of soluble protein aggregates formed during heat-treatment of milk at pH 6· 5 or 7· 2. Journal of dairy research, 73(01), 79-86.
6. Whetstine, M. C., Croissant, A. E., & Drake, M. A. (2005). Characterization of dried whey protein concentrate and isolate flavor. Journal of dairy science,88(11), 3826-3839.

Whey Protein Concentrate:
1. Hulmi, J. J., Lockwood, C. M., & Stout, J. R. (2010). Effect of protein/essential amino acids and resistance training on skeletal muscle hypertrophy: A case for whey protein. Nutrition & metabolism, 7(1), 1.
2. Hoffman, J. R., & Falvo, M. J. (2004). Protein-Which is best. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 3(3), 118-130.
3. Hayes, A., & Cribb, P. J. (2008). Effect of whey protein isolate on strength, body composition and muscle hypertrophy during resistance training. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care, 11(1), 40-44.
4. Volek, J. S., Volk, B. M., Gómez, A. L., Kunces, L. J., Kupchak, B. R., Freidenreich, D. J., … & Quann, E. E. (2013). Whey protein supplementation during resistance training augments lean body mass. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 32(2), 122-135.
5. Renan, M., Mekmene, O., Famelart, M. H., Guyomarc’h, F., Arnoult-Delest, V., Pâquet, D., & Brulé, G. (2006). pH-Dependent behaviour of soluble protein aggregates formed during heat-treatment of milk at pH 6· 5 or 7· 2. Journal of dairy research, 73(01), 79-86.

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