A chain is only as strong as its weakest link, and good health begins with the entire body. If any single organ or system is out of whack, a slew of problems can set in and distract an athlete from achieving their goals.
We all take good care of our muscles, but what about everything else? Not everything benefits from long hours in the gym and the numerous other stressors present in every day life.
The fact of the matter is that we all need a little help from time to time - and so do our many bodily systems. This is exactly why MuscleSport's RX Stack exists - to support and optimize TOTAL health.
Anybody with any sort of dietary restriction, it doesn't matter if it is low-carb, low-fat, vegan, carnivore, whatever, needs a quality multivitamin for optimal function. This is especially true for those who are physically active, who need ~30% more micronutrients than those who are inactive. The RX Stack features MultiVita Revolution, the best multivitamin formula for athletes.
Anybody that goes through prolonged periods of stress are susceptible, and likely suffering from, adrenal fatigue (adrenal insufficiency). If you're the type to refuse deload weeks in your training, have a disrupted sleeping pattern (sleep less than 7 hours per night, shift work, trouble falling asleep, always tired, etc.), consume "above average" quantities of caffeine, or are generally stressed otherwise, this could be you. Even if it is not you, Adrenal Revolution is designed to maintain healthy and responsive adrenal glands, which plays an important role in body leanness and caffeine tolerance.
The fitness-minded ask a lot from our digestive system. Most of the time, we require above normal quantities of food, and when we don't, we're starving. Both ends of this spectrum can result in disrupted gut health as dysbiosis and enzyme imbalance or insufficiency. The RX Stack features Digestive Nzymes Revolution to facilitate appropriate and complete digestion to reduce gastrointestinal distress, bloating, and enhance nutrient uptake.
If you've been training for any respectable length of time, your joints have let you know. Luckily, research has keyed in on the most effective supplements for promoting tip-top joint health. The Big 4? Glucosamine, Chondroitin, MSM (Methylsulfonylmethane), and Hyaluronic Acid. Of course, these are the 4 main ingredients of Joint Revolution, an important member of the RX Stack.
Last, but certainly not least, we have the liver. When it comes to metabolism, the liver is easily the most important organ in the body. Protein metabolism? The primary site is the liver. Carbohydrate metabolism? The primary site is the liver. Fat metabolism? You guessed it - the primary site is the liver. Any alterations in liver function can lead to fatigue and other issues. Liver Pro Revolution is designed to optimize and maintain a healthy liver.
If your TOTAL health is important to you, get the RX Stack!
Vitamin A is principally found in animal products such as meat, eggs, fish, and dairy as retinol. Provitamin A, carotenoids, are found in orange-colored plants – usually as beta-carotene, but there are over 600 known carotenoids.
- Supports vision and prevents night blindness, xerophthalmia, and keratinization of the eye.
- Helps with collagen formation for strong connective tissues and smooth skin.
- Essential for reproduction by stimulating spermatogenesis, oogenesis, and embryonic growth.
- Antioxidant within the cell membrane.
Vitamin C is the classic immunity vitamin. However, this is just one of Vitamin C’s many important roles in the human body.
- Prevents immune system deficiencies, ensuring the best protection from colds.
- Can speed the recovery from colds in athletes.
- Repairs cartilage, bones, and teeth.
- Protects the body from free radicals, which may help prevent disease.
The sunshine vitamin is well known for its role in bone health, and as is so often the case, it does much more. Vitamin D has numerous vital roles.
- Aids in calcium absorption and reduction of falls for improved bone health.
- Low vitamin D status is associated with seasonal cold and flu outbreaks.
- Vitamin D metabolites strengthen muscle contractions
- May help reduce and control blood pressure.
- Improves mood and nervous system health.
- May support a healthy appetite.
- Enhances sex-hormone synthesis.
The tocoperhols (vitamin E) may be the most potent of the antioxidant vitamins that may help in the prevention of a number of diseases.
- Powerful antioxidant.
- A cell signal that helps regulate the growth of smooth muscle.
- May help prevent infertility and atherogenesis.
Thiamin and the other B vitamins have a major role in metabolism and energy production. Thiamin (vitamin B1) has the role of decarboxylation and transketolation. Thiamin deficiencies result in a condition known as beriberi.
- Facilitates conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA for efficient energy metabolism.
- Helps with the metabolism of non-traditional sugars, such as ribose.
- Supports the health and function of neurons.
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) forms flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which along with NAD, moves back and forth through the mitochondrial membrane to form ATP.
- Can help with skin, hair, and nail health.
- Aids in red blood cell formation.
- May prevent muscle cramps.
Similar to riboflavin and FAD, niacin (vitamin B3) is required to form nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). NAD performs the same function as FAD and may also slow aging.
- Improves blood flow and vascularization.
- Prevents pellagra.
- May delay onset of age-related diseases.
Like the other B’s, B6 is heavily involved in energy metabolism. It is a cofactor in over 100 reactions, many of which within the muscle, where it helps with glycogen utilization.
- Enhances muscle glycogen access and use.
- Involved in heme synthesis.
- Supports brain development and function.
Cobalamin (B12) may be the most popular of the B vitamins. Indeed, B12 does help with energy as well as oxygen transport and nervous system function.
- In B12-deficient athletes and ill persons, supplementation with B12 enhances endurance.
- Required for the formation of hemoglobin and prevents pernicious anemia.
- Involved in the replication of DNA.
Biotin is also known as vitamin B7. Similar to other B vitamins, it is involved in glucose metabolism. Biotin also helps in protein and amino acid metabolism.
- Helps to produce amino acids.
- Plays a role in glycogen synthesis.
- Forms intermediate compounds in the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
Pantothenic acid (B5) is one of the cooler B vitamins. Its main function is in the rate limiting step in coenzyme-A formation (as in acetyl-CoA – gateway to aerobic metabolism).
- Supports proper adrenal function.
- May reduce perceptions of stress.
- Helps control cholesterol levels.
Vitamin K can principally be found in two forms, phylloquinone or menaquinone. Most known for blood clotting, vitamin K has several functions throughout the body.
- Improves bone health by facilitating calcium and osteocalcin binding.
- Strengthens teeth by aiding in the production of dentin.
- May decrease markers of inflammation, such as CRP.
Folic acid, or folate, is the fetal vitamin (vitamin B9). Despite being known for healthy babies, folate has at least a dozen other functions. Here are a few:
- Reduces incidence of neural tube defects during embryonic development.
- Observational studies report reduced risk of various cancers.
- Low folate levels are correlated with liver damage.
Boron is a mineral that may help with muscle growth. Interestingly, boron is also essential for plant growth. Weird! It’s good for humans too.
- May increase free testosterone to aid in muscle growth.
- Plays a key role in bone growth and wound healing.
- Has anti-inflammatory potential.
- Can prevent vitamin D deficiency.
Calcium is a common customer in milk and other dairy products. It’s one of the reasons milk is so effective for helping build muscle.
- A signal for muscle contractions lasting longer than 20 seconds.
- The major component of bones.
- One of the primary electrolyte minerals.
Phosphorus is another mineral essential for bone health, like calcium and vitamin D, but it doesn’t get as much love. In addition, phosphorus has a good deal of other functions.
- Form high-energy molecules like ATP.
- A component of DNA and RNA.
- Supports healthy bones.
Iodine is a key weight-loss mineral. At one time, most people were deficient in iodine, which is why we now have iodized salt. However, as more people turn to natural salts, iodine deficiencies are becoming a problem once again.
- Forms thyroid hormones that stimulate fat loss.
- Improves cognitive functioning.
- Can reduce the severity of thyroid cancers.
Magnesium is involved in over 300 reactions throughout the body. Most of these reactions are tied to athletic performance in at least one way.
- Magnesium participates in processes that generate ATP
- Involved in protein synthesis.
- Helps with muscle contractions.
- Increases total work output.
- Supplementation enhances endurance and peak oxygen consumption.
Supplemental zinc has benefits that extend far beyond what can be contained in a single summary. Here are some of the highlights.
- Improves sleep quality.
- Enhances mitochondrial function, which may improve endurance.
- Prevents exercise-induced decreases in thyroid hormones and testosterone – very important for hard-training athletes.
- Prolongs the lifespan.
- Reduces risk of disease.
This mineral is most abundant in Brazil nuts – just one brazil nut has a whole day’s worth of selenium and then some! That’s good news, as selenium has a pronounced role in good health and exercise recovery.
- Important for thyroid function and body weight regulation.
- May increase testosterone and IGF-1
- Can help with insulin sensitivity and function.
Copper has a number of interactions with another popular mineral, iron. They work together principally to foster iron’s purposes, but copper has a few of its own unique properties.
- May reduce incidence of Alzheimer’s disease and neurodegeneration.
- Reduces depression and anxiety.
- Supports reductions in oxidative stress and cardiovascular health.
Similar in name and in function, manganese often can stand in for magnesium in metabolic reactions due to comparable coordination and charge. Some of manganese’s unique functions include:
- Forming the most abundant antioxidant in mitochondria, manganese superoxide dismutase.
- Producing enzymes and proteoglycans for healthy bones and joints.
- Involved in glutamine synthesis.
Chromium may have the most superhero of names, which extends so far as to be implicated for the prevention of “syndrome X.” Its functions are pretty super too.
- Increases insulin efficiency and glucose disposal.
- May reduce blood lipids, potentially reducing risk of cardiovascular disease.
- Supplementation may increase muscle gains while decreasing body fat.
Fruits & Greens
Fruits and vegetables are an essential component of a healthy diet, and they are one of the few examples of a “more is better” approach that does not lead to overconsumption detriments.
- Over 10 different plant-based ingredients provide phytochemical sustenance.
- Contains powerful antioxidants.
- High fruit and vegetable consumption decreases all-cause mortality.
Otherwise known as methylsulfonylmethane, MSM is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent with roles in joint health as a source of sulfur.
- Reduces exercise-induced oxidation.
- May decrease muscle damage.
- Studies have found patients to experienced reduced joint pain with MSM supplementation.
Green tea contains the powerful antioxidant EGCG and other catechins that have been observed to have several beneficial effects on health and body composition.
- May reduce body fat mass.
- Increases fat oxidation.
- Reduces blood glucose and LDL cholesterol.
Alpha Lipoic Acid
Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA) is a potent antioxidant in the mitochondria that offers protection to several organs as well as reducing the potential for aging from dysfunctional mitochondria.
- Reduces general oxidation within the body.
- Enhances blood flow.
- May improve nervous system function and neurogenesis.
CoQ10 is a very heart-friendly antioxidant. It has a role in ATP generation along the electron transport chain of the mitochondria and also may prevent several diseases.
- A recent investigation on CoQ10 supplementation for four years reduced cardiovascular disease mortality. A follow-up 12 years later found that although supplementation was discontinued, patients were still experiencing benefits and living longer.
- Reduces lipid peroxidation.
- May enhance exercise capacity.
Pycnogenol is pine bark extract (specifically, French maritime pine bark extract) that is mostly procyanidins (such as in blueberries). Despite sounding relatively ordinary, pycnogenol is one of the most interesting supplements available.
- Increases blood flow in clinical and healthy persons and supports venous insufficiency.
- Improves attention and cognition.
- Fosters good skin health and quality.
- Promotes healthy cholesterol levels.
- Prevents symptoms of jet lag.
Grape Seed Extract
Grape seed is another with procyanidins, but it also contains tannins – another phytonutrient.
- May decrease aromatase, decreasing the conversion of testosterone to estrogen.
- Helps with appetite regulation.
- Supports a healthy cardiovascular system.
Saw Palmetto Extract
Saw palmetto is an ingredient derived from Serenoa Repens fruit with a particularly prominent role in men’s health.
- Promotes a healthy prostate.
- May reduce the conversion of testosterone to DHT.
- Enhances hair regrowth in male pattern baldness, sexual function, and quality of life.
Lutein is a carotenoid, or provitamin for vitamin A. High concentrations are found in eggs, and provide much of the foods function as an antioxidant and proponent of eye health.
- Supports proper vision.
- Antioxidant effects.
- May protect against chronic disease.
Piperine is an extract of black pepper fruit that works well in conjunction with other supplements.
- Prevents supplements from attacking enzymes
- Promotes absorption.
Advanced Enzyme Blend (protease, amylase, lipase, cellulase, lactase, betaine)
Digestive enzymes increase the digestion and absorption of nutrients while also reducing potential adverse reactions.
- Inclusion of lactase may increase tolerance to lactose.
- Protease and betaine facilitate protein and amino acid digestion.
- Amylase, lipase, cellulase, and lactase promote carbohydrate and lipid digestion.
Ashwagandha is classified as an adaptogen, meaning it helps the body deal with physical, emotional, and psychological stressors.
- It also shows promise for relieving insomnia and stress-induced bouts of depression.
- Ashwagandha is able to mitigate stress and anxiety by reducing cortisol concentrations and the immunosuppressive effect of stress on the body.
- Ashwagandha can improve the formation of memories and may be able to treat Alzheimer's disease due to its ability to prevent the degradation of brain cells, making the herb a neuroprotectant.
- In a study conducted by Andrade et al. (2000), six weeks supplementation of Ashwagandha in persons with a diagnosed generalized anxiety disorder (mixed anxiety and depression), noted significant improvements in both depression and anxiety symptoms.
Magnesium is an essential mineral and electrolyte. It is involved in protein synthesis, ATP formation, metabolism of carbohydrates and fats, and bone strength.
- Magnesium deficiencies are the second most common deficiency in developed countries. A lack of magnesium will raise blood pressure and reduce insulin sensitivity.
- Increases in free and total testosterone have been noted in sedentary and athletic populations when supplementing with magnesium supplementation. It also acts as a muscle relaxer and may improve aerobic performance.
- Brilla et al. (1992) discovered 26 untrained subjects who participated in a 7-week strength training program in conjunction with magnesium supplementation were able to increase testosterone relative to baseline.
Rhodiola Rosea Root Extract
Rhodiola Rosea root extract has a wide range of adaptogenic functions, which means it may help you deal with stress and manage its effect on your body.
- One way that Rhodiola may help is by supporting the neurological mechanisms that deal with stress.
- It may also reduce fatigue and exhaustion in prolonged stressful situations.
- Research suggests Rhodiola can have a positive effect on cognition, feelings of well-being, and decrease symptoms of depression.
- A study conducted by Edwards et al. (2012) found Rhodiola extract used twice daily for 4 weeks in persons with life and work-related stress was able to greatly reduce dysfunction and fatigue associated with stress in a time-dependent manner.
Holy Basil Extract
Holy Basil is an ayurvetic herb which has historically been used to treat a variety of general ailments.
- It recently has been shown to hold scientific worth in the areas of liver protection and general anti-oxidant activity as well as being classified as an adaptogen (reducing the effects of stress on the body).
- Bhattacharyya et al. (2008) found holy basil extract was able to reduce anxiety and its related depression/stress over 60 days of supplementation in a population of persons with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD).
Tyrosine’s primary role in the body is as the direct precursor to thyroxine and to the neurotransmitters dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.
- Dopamine is often associated with the 'reward center' of the brain which means when high levels of it are present, you will most likely experience a sensation of joy, happiness or positive reinforcement.
- Tyrosine is actually less bioavailable in the body during times of heightened stress. If you're constantly worried or experiencing bouts of anxiety, supplementing with Tyrosine may be beneficial to lowering your stress levels and improving your overall mood.
- Relative to placebo, Banderet et al. (1989) found L-Tyrosine was associated with significant improvements in mood, cognitive function, and side-effects associated with acute stressors (cold and altitude) in military personnel.
Similar to betaine anhydrous, an ergogenic aid, betaine HCl has a different function. Betaine HCl helps with digestion by donating HCl
- Helps correct hypochlorhydria (low stomach acid) to break down foods in the stomach.
- Hypochlorhydria is linked to poor vitamin and mineral absorption.
- Only influences stomach acidity in the short term, will not lead to acid reflux.
The amylase family, which consists of alpha-, beta-, and glucoamylase is a major enzyme in the breakdown of starches to smaller units.
- The primary carbohydrate-digesting enzyme.
- Hydrolyzes starch to maltose and isomaltose.
- May help prevent high blood glucose levels.
Proteases break down proteins into short amino acid chains, which can then be further broken down into individual amino acids by other enzymes.
- Essential for amino acid absorption from proteins.
- Proteases are currently being investigated as therapeutic agents for digestive disorders, inflammation, cystic fibrosis, and other diseases.
- May aid in tissue repair after exercise.
A specific protease, pepsin is present in the gut and formed when pepsinogen comes into contact with the acidity of the stomach.
- The enzyme responsible for initial protein breakdown.
- Capable of digesting the largest of proteins ingested.
Pancreatin is a combination of several enzymes produced by the pancreas with the capacity for digestion of all macronutrients.
- Used to treat pancreatic problems that may arise from digestive system disorders
- May help with food allergies.
Papain is an enzyme from papaya that breaks down proteins. It is, therefore, a common ingredient in meat tenderizers. Papain hydrolyzes the peptide bonds in smaller peptides.
- Digests long polypeptides into dipeptides and single amino acids.
Lipase digests lipids (fats). It is responsible for breaking down the fats we consume in our diets, and too little lipase leads to digestive distress and disorders.
- Relieves discomfort from bloating and gas.
- Lipase deficiencies are associated with acute pancreatitis.
- Proper Lipase levels may prevent cardiovascular disorders.
Bromelain is a protease found in pineapple that profoundly helps digestion.
- May ameliorate symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease and ulcerative colitis.
- Bromelain reduced swelling and pain following surgery, which may favorably translate to injuries as well.
- Research on bromelain has found that it may be efficacious for attenuating symptoms of osteoarthritis.
Cellulose is an insoluble fiber found in the cell wall of plants. Cellulase breaks down cellulose, and it is not common or robust in mammals (including humans), which is why we cannot digest fiber except by bacterial fermentation in the large intestine.
- Turns fiber into utilizable monosaccharides.
- May improve the nutritive value of fermented foods, grains, fruits, and vegetables.
- Digests harmful microbial biofilms.
Gentiana lutea is an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine used to treat stomach ailments and digestive complications. It may have over a dozen other therapeutic effects.
- Promotes natural digestive enzyme action.
- May reduce endothelial inflammation, preventing atherosclerosis.
- Extracts from Gentiana lutea have been found to improve endurance and reduce muscular fatigue.
Glucosamine Sulfate is an amino sugar and a precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids found in the body.
- Glycosaminoglycans are highly polar, and attract water which in turn is useful for the body to use as a lubricant component of cellular fluidity and joint mobility.
- Glucosamine produced in the body is a natural component in the growth, repair, and maintenance of cartilage. It may also assist with the slowing down of joint damage.
- Glucosamine with the combination of chondroitin has shown to assist with pain relief in association with arthritis.
- A recent study from the American Journal of Epidemiology suggest that glucosamine and chondroitin supplements are associated with reduced inflammation.
Chondroitin Sulfate is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan which is an important structural component of cartilage.
- Chondroitin provides the building blocks for the synthesis of proteoglycans including sulfate incorporation and assists with resistance to compression alongside cartilage.
- Chondroitin may help joint pain, improve joint stiffness, and decrease the symptoms of osteoarthritis.
Hyaluronic Acid also known as hyaluronan or hyaluronate is a mucopolysaccharide occurring naturally throughout the body.
- This incredibly versatile molecule binds to water giving it an almost “jello” like viscosity.
- It plays a key role in cushioning and lubricating areas such as joints, eyes, and muscles.
- A common forgotten aspect of Hyaluronic acid is its powerful antioxidant properties and its ability to protect against free-radical damage to cells.
- It may also help decrease symptoms of osteoarthritis.
Orthosilicic Acid (OSA) is a type of silicic acid that naturally occurs in water, seawater, and certain beverages (like beer).
- It is often referred to as “soluble silica” because Orthosilicic Acid is a dietary form of silicon (a mineral that is involved in the creation of collagen and bones).
- Research on OSA has shown it may improve bone and joint health.
- In a 2008 study, 136 women with osteopenia took OSA along with calcium and vitamin D, or a simple placebo every day for a year. After the full year was completed, participants given OSA had shown greater improvements in bone formation.
- Scientists attributed this to OSA’s ability to stimulate the production of collagen (a protein that is found in connective tissue) and in promoting the development of “bone-forming cells.”
Quercetin is a type of plant-based chemical, or phytochemical, known as a flavonoid. It possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.
- Quercetin is also neuroactive, with some of the same abilities as caffeine but less potent.
- Quercetin acts as an estrogen modulator, having the ability to regulate estrogen and androgen levels.
- Quercetin is also able to prevent testicular damage from Dioxins and thus prevent a decline in testosterone levels.
Milk Thistle Extract
Milk thistle is an herb that may be a liver therapeutic compound.
- Milk thistle may increase the rate of protein synthesis in liver cells and encourage subsequent repair after injury to the cells.
- It may also decrease LDL, triglycerides, and heartburn.
- Limited evidence exists, but milk thistle may also have anti-obesity effects.
N-Acetyl-Cysteine is an acetylated form of L-Cysteine that is more bioavailable. It is often used for its high antioxidant content to reduce inflammation and counter oxidative stress.
- It also works to bind various free radicals and poisons in the body so they can be removed through the digestive process and expelled.
Glutathione is a substance produced naturally by the liver. It is also found in fruits, vegetables, and meats.
- Glutathione is involved in many processes in the body, including tissue building and repair, making chemicals and proteins needed in the body, and for the immune system.
- Because glutathione is heavily involved in the detoxification of our body, it is no surprise that it is found in its highest concentrations in the liver; the body’s most important detoxifying organ.
- Glutathione is also closely linked to liver health and function when GSH levels are high, the workload put on the liver is reduced and it has a chance to repair itself.
- This helps reduce liver inflammation which is the cause of liver cirrhosis and impaired liver function.
Turmeric is an herb that is used to help fight infections, reduce inflammation, and treat digestive problems.
- Tumeric is also a potent antioxidant and may decrease symptoms of osteoarthritis.
- What’s more, turmeric can uniquely assist the enzymes that are responsible for flushing out known dietary carcinogens. The result is enhanced protection against liver damage, and even regeneration of affected liver cells.
- According to a new study in the Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, scientists have found that the livers of diabetic rats were repaired and even regenerated with the help of turmeric.
KIDNEY SUPPORT MATRIX
Taraxacum officinale, also known as dandelion, is a vegetable that has a diuretic (water loss) effect when ingested.
- It is also a source of potassium and thereby helps replace diuresis-induced losses.
- Dandelion may help ease digestion by increasing the rate at which food leaves the stomach and enters the small intestine.
- A study conducted by Clare et al. (2009) found dandelion three times a day in otherwise healthy subjects reported an increase in urination frequency relative to the same subjects the day before and after supplementation.
Uva-Ursi is an herbal compound which has the effects of a mild diuretic and astringent (anti-inflammatory).
- It helps to reduce accumulation of uric acid in the bladder and help the overall health and productivity of the urinary tract.
- Uva-Ursi may also help reduce high blood pressure and bloating.
- Its anti-inflammatory effects can help to tighten upper layers of the mucous membrane – relieving irritation and improving tissue firmness.
Glycine is a non-essential amino acid that is used to help generate muscle tissue, assist with proper cell growth and production, and convert glycogen into energy. It also plays an important role in proper nervous system function.
- Glycine is required for the biosynthesis of creatine. Glycine increases the body’s creatine levels and helps prevent the breakdown of muscle.
- In the absence of glycine, damaged muscle tissue cannot be repaired.
- Current research has suggested that glycine supplementation may increase growth hormone (GH) levels 3-4 hours post-exercise via its stimulatory agents acting upon the pituitary gland. This increase in GH theoretically could lead to faster recovery times and greater muscle growth.
Juniper extract helps fight inflammation and various GI issues including upset stomach, heartburn, flatulence, bloating, and loss of appetite.
- Juniper extract has been used as a diuretic. This activity is most likely due to the action of terpinen-4-ol, which is known to increase renal glomerular filtration rate.
Buchu is harvested from the dried leaves obtained from three species of Barosma.
- Historically, buchu has been used to treat inflammation, kidney and urinary tract infections; and as a diuretic.
Artichoke powder is an extract that appears to have the ability to stimulate bile secretion; this may underlie a reduction in cholesterol and improve fat digestion.
- Artichoke is used to stimulate the flow of bile from the liver.
- The bile production, stimulated by the artichoke leaf extract, benefits the liver by helping it to eliminate toxins.
- One study in persons with high cholesterol has noted decreases in liver enzymes associated with artichoke supplementation, where over 45 days a decrease was seen for y-GT (25.8%), AST (17.3%), and ALT (15.2%) with no influence on GLDH.
Q: Is it safe to take 5 different supplements at once?
A: Yes. And in the case of the RX Stack, it is not just safe - it is absolutely healthy and beneficial.
Q: What about other supplements? Can I take those at the same time?
A: Definitely. In fact, the RX Stack is designed to enhance the effects of other, performance-enhancing supplements. For example, Adrenal Revolution supports the effects of caffeine in pre workout and fat burners (and coffee!) by attenuating caffeine tolerance.
Q: Can't I just get all of these beneficial nutrients from food?
A: As scientists, we can't say it's impossible. However, the shear quantity of food required to obtain the efficacious doses in every product featured in the RX Stack is sure to bust a few pairs of pants if not cause more serious side effects - it would be a TON of food!
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Fruits & Greens
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Grape Seed Extract
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Saw Palmetto Extract
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Advanced Enzyme Blend (protease, amylase, lipase, cellulose lactase, betaine)
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3. Cooley, K., Szczurko, O., Perri, D., Mills, E. J., Bernhardt, B., Zhou, Q., & Seely, D. (2009). Naturopathic care for anxiety: a randomized controlled trial ISRCTN78958974. PLoS One, 4(8), e6628.
1. Cinar, V., Polat, Y., Baltaci, A. K., & Mogulkoc, R. (2011). Effects of magnesium supplementation on testosterone levels of athletes and sedentary subjects at rest and after exhaustion. Biological trace element research, 140(1), 18-23.
2. van der Plas, A. A., Schilder, J. C., Marinus, J., & van Hilten, J. J. (2013). An explanatory study evaluating the muscle relaxant effects of intramuscular magnesium sulphate for dystonia in complex regional pain syndrome. The Journal of Pain, 14(11), 1341-1348.
3. Hatzistavri, L. S., Sarafidis, P. A., Georgianos, P. I., Tziolas, I. M., Aroditis, C. P., Zebekakis, P. E., … & Lasaridis, A. N. (2009). Oral magnesium supplementation reduces ambulatory blood pressure in patients with mild hypertension. American journal of hypertension, 22(10), 1070-1075.
4. Golf, S. W., Bender, S., & Grüttner, J. (1998). On the significance of magnesium in extreme physical stress. Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy,12(2), 197-202.
5. Carpenter, T. O., DeLucia, M. C., Zhang, J. H., Bejnerowicz, G., Tartamella, L., Dziura, J., … & Cohen, D. (2006). A randomized controlled study of effects of dietary magnesium oxide supplementation on bone mineral content in healthy girls. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 91(12), 4866-4872.
6. Held, K., Antonijevic, I. A., Künzel, H., Uhr, M., Wetter, T. C., Golly, I. C., … & Murck, H. (2002). Oral Mg (2+) supplementation reverses age-related neuroendocrine and sleep EEG changes in humans. Pharmacopsychiatry,35(4), 135-143. 7. Brilla, L. R., & Haley, T. F. (1992). Effect of magnesium supplementation on strength training in humans. Journal of the American College of Nutrition,11(3), 326-329.
Rhodiola Rosea Root Extract:
1. Hung, S. K., Perry, R., & Ernst, E. (2011). The effectiveness and efficacy of Rhodiola rosea L.: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.Phytomedicine, 18(4), 235-244.
2. Edwards, D., Heufelder, A., & Zimmermann, A. (2012). Therapeutic Effects and Safety of Rhodiola rosea Extract WS® 1375 in Subjects with Life‐stress Symptoms–Results of an Open‐label Study. Phytotherapy Research, 26(8), 1220-1225.
3. Spasov, A. A., Wikman, G. K., Mandrikov, V. B., Mironova, I. A., & Neumoin, V. V. (2000). A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of the stimulating and adaptogenic effect of Rhodiola rosea SHR-5 extract on the fatigue of students caused by stress during an examination period with a repeated low-dose regimen. Phytomedicine, 7(2), 85-89.
4. Shevtsov, V. A., Zholus, B. I., Shervarly, V. I., Vol'skij, V. B., Korovin, Y. P., Khristich, M. P., ... & Wikman, G. (2003). A randomized trial of two different doses of a SHR-5 Rhodiola rosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work. Phytomedicine, 10(2), 95-105.
5. Darbinyan, V., Aslanyan, G., Amroyan, E., Gabrielyan, E., Malmström, C., & Panossian, A. (2007). Clinical trial of Rhodiola rosea L. extract SHR-5 in the treatment of mild to moderate depression. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry,61(5), 343-348.
Holy Basil Extract:
1. Bhattacharyya, D., Sur, T. K., Jana, U., & Debnath, P. K. (2008). Controlled programmed trial of Ocimum sanctum leaf on generalized anxiety disorders.Nepal. Med. Coll. J, 10(3), 176-179.
1. Benedict, C. R., Anderson, G. H., & Sole, M. J. (1983). The influence of oral tyrosine and tryptophan feeding on plasma catecholamines in man. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 38(3), 429-435.
2. Alonso, R., Gibson, C. J., Wurtman, R. J., Agharanya, J. C., & Prieto, L. (1982). Elevation of urinary catecholamines and their metabolites following tyrosine administration in humans. Biological psychiatry, 17(7), 781-790.
3. Agharanya, J. C., Alonso, R., & Wurtman, R. J. (1981). Changes in catecholamine excretion after short-term tyrosine ingestion in normally fed human subjects. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 34(1), 82-87.
4. Acworth, I. N., During, M. J., & Wurtman, R. J. (1988). Tyrosine: effects on catecholamine release. Brain research bulletin, 21(3), 473-477.
5. Neri, D. F., Wiegmann, D., Stanny, R. R., Shappell, S. A., McCardie, A., & McKay, D. L. (1995). The effects of tyrosine on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine.
1. Yago, M. R., Frymoyer, A. R., Smelick, G. S., Frassetto, L. A., Budha, N. R., Dresser, M. J., … & Benet, L. Z. (2013). Gastric reacidification with betaine HCl in healthy volunteers with rabeprazole-induced hypochlorhydria. Molecular Pharmaceutics, 10(11), 4032-4037.
2. Yago, M. R., Frymoyer, A., Benet, L. Z., Smelick, G. S., Frassetto, L. A., Ding, X., … & Dresser, M. J. (2014). The use of betaine HCl to enhance dasatinib absorption in healthy volunteers with rabeprazole-induced hypochlorhydria. The AAPS journal, 16(6), 1358-1365.
3. Aditi, A., & Graham, D. Y. (2012). Vitamin C, gastritis, and gastric disease: a historical review and update. Digestive diseases and sciences, 57(10), 2504-2515.
4. Recker, R. R. (1985). Calcium absorption and achlorhydria. New England Journal of Medicine, 313(2), 70-73.
5. Park, C. H., Kim, E. H., Roh, Y. H., Kim, H. Y., & Lee, S. K. (2014). The association between the use of proton pump inhibitors and the risk of hypomagnesemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS one, 9(11), e112558.
1. Yadav, R., BhaRtiYa, J. P., Verma, S. K., & Nandkeoliar, M. K. (2013). The evaluation of serum amylase in the patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus, with a possible correlation with the pancreatic functions. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR, 7(7), 1291.
2. Butterworth, P. J., Warren, F. J., & Ellis, P. R. (2011). Human α‐amylase and starch digestion: An interesting marriage. Starch‐Stärke, 63(7), 395-405.
1. Craik, C. S., Page, M. J., & Madison, E. L. (2011). Proteases as therapeutics. Biochemical Journal, 435(1), 1-16.
2. Shah, D., & Mital, K. (2018). The Role of Trypsin: Chymotrypsin in Tissue Repair. Advances in therapy, 1-12.
1. Roxas, M. (2008). The role of enzyme supplementation in digestive disorders. Altern Med Rev, 13(4), 307-14.
1. Whitehead, A. M. (1988). Study to compare the enzyme activity, acid resistance and dissolution characteristics of currently available pancreatic enzyme preparations. Pharmaceutisch Weekblad, 10(1), 12-16.
2. Löhr, J. M., Hummel, F. M., Pirilis, K. T., Steinkamp, G., Körner, A., & Henniges, F. (2009). Properties of different pancreatin preparations used in pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology, 21(9), 1024-1031.
1. Sharma, M., Sharma, V., Panda, A. K., & Majumdar, D. K. (2011). Development of enteric submicron particle formulation of papain for oral delivery. International journal of nanomedicine, 6, 2097.
1. Lankisch, P. G., Burchard-Reckert, S., & Lehnick, D. (1999). Underestimation of acute pancreatitis: patients with only a small increase in amylase/lipase levels can also have or develop severe acute pancreatitis. Gut, 44(4), 542-544.
2. Groenemeijer, B. E., Hallman, M. D., Reymer, P. W., Gagné, E., Kuivenhoven, J. A., Bruin, T., … & Hayden, M. R. (1997). Genetic variant showing a positive interaction with β-blocking agents with a beneficial influence on lipoprotein lipase activity, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in coronary artery disease patients: the Ser447-stop substitution in the lipoprotein lipase gene. Circulation, 95(12), 2628-2635.
3. Mead, J. R., Irvine, S. A., & Ramji, D. P. (2002). Lipoprotein lipase: structure, function, regulation, and role in disease. Journal of molecular medicine, 80(12), 753-769.
1. Singh, T., More, V., Fatima, U., Karpe, T., Aleem, M. A., & Prameela, J. (2016). Effect of proteolytic enzyme bromelain on pain and swelling after removal of third molars. Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry, 6(Suppl 3), S197.
2. Brien, S., Lewith, G., Walker, A., Hicks, S. M., & Middleton, D. (2004). Bromelain as a treatment for osteoarthritis: a review of clinical studies. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine, 1(3), 251-257.
3. Leeds, J. S., Hopper, A. D., Sidhu, R., Simmonette, A., Azadbakht, N., Hoggard, N., … & Sanders, D. S. (2010). Some patients with irritable bowel syndrome may have exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 8(5), 433-438.
4. Fitzhugh, D. J., Shan, S., Dewhirst, M. W., & Hale, L. P. (2008). Bromelain treatment decreases neutrophil migration to sites of inflammation. Clinical Immunology, 128(1), 66-74.
1. Loiselle, M., & Anderson, K. W. (2003). The use of cellulase in inhibiting biofilm formation from organisms commonly found on medical implants. Biofouling, 19(2), 77-85.
2. Kumar, S. (2015). Role of enzymes in fruit juice processing and its quality enhancement. health, 6(6), 114-124.
3. Kapasakalidis, P. G., Rastall, R. A., & Gordon, M. H. (2009). Effect of a cellulase treatment on the extraction of antioxidant phenols from black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) pomace. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57(10), 4342-4351.
4. Tamang, J. P., Shin, D. H., Jung, S. J., & Chae, S. W. (2016). Functional properties of microorganisms in fermented foods. Frontiers in microbiology, 7, 578.
5. Singh, A., Karmakar, S., Jacob, B. S., Bhattacharya, P., Kumar, S. J., & Banerjee, R. (2015). Enzymatic polishing of cereal grains for improved nutrient retainment. Journal of food science and technology, 52(6), 3147-3157.
1. Kesavan, R., Chandel, S., Upadhyay, S., Bendre, R., Ganugula, R., Potunuru, U. R., … & Joksic, G. (2016). Gentiana lutea exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects by preventing endothelial inflammation and smooth muscle cell migration. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 26(4), 293-301.
2. Kesavan, R., Potunuru, U. R., Nastasijević, B., Avaneesh, T., Joksić, G., & Dixit, M. (2013). Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by Gentiana lutea root extracts. PLoS One, 8(4), e61393.
3. Öztürk, N., Can Başer, K. H., Aydin, S., Öztürk, Y., & Çaliş, I. (2002). Effects of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra on the central nervous system in mice. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives, 16(7), 627-631.
4. McMullen, M. K., Whitehouse, J. M., & Towell, A. (2015). Bitters: time for a new paradigm. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative
1. Herrero‐Beaumont, G., Ivorra, J. A. R., del Carmen Trabado, M., Blanco, F. J., Benito, P., Martín‐Mola, E., ... & Araujo, D. (2007). Glucosamine sulfate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis symptoms: A randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled study using acetaminophen as a side comparator. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 56(2), 555-567.
2. Reginster, J. Y., Deroisy, R., Rovati, L. C., Lee, R. L., Lejeune, E., Bruyere, O., ... & Gossett, C. (2001). Long-term effects of glucosamine sulphate on osteoarthritis progression: a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The Lancet, 357(9252), 251-256.
3. Ostojic, S. M., Arsic, M., Prodanovic, S., Vukovic, J., & Zlatanovic, M. (2007). Glucosamine administration in athletes: effects on recovery of acute knee injury. Research in Sports Medicine, 15(2), 113-124.
4. Yoshimura, M., Sakamoto, K., Yamamoto, T., Ishida, K., Yamaguchi, H., & Nagaoka, I. (2009). Evaluation of the effect of glucosamine administration on biomarkers for cartilage and bone metabolism in soccer players. International journal of molecular medicine, 24(4), 487-494.
1. Conte, A., Volpi, N., Palmieri, L., Bahousb, I., & Roncac, G. (1995). Biochemical and Pharmacokinetic Aspects of Oral Treatment with Chondroitin Sulfate.
2. Deal, C. L., & Moskowitz, R. W. (1999). Nutraceuticals as therapeutic agents in osteoarthritis: the role of glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and collagen hydrolysate. Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America, 25(2), 379-395.
3. Bruyere, O., & Reginster, J. Y. (2007). Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate as therapeutic agents for knee and hip osteoarthritis. Drugs & aging, 24(7), 573-580.
4. Black, C., Clar, C., Henderson, R., MacEachern, C., McNamee, P., Quayyum, Z., ... & Thomas, S. (2009). The clinical effectiveness of glucosamine and chondroitin supplements in slowing or arresting the progression of osteoarthritis of the knee: a systematic review and economic evaluation.
5. Reichenbach, S., Sterchi, R., Scherer, M., Trelle, S., Bürgi, E., Bürgi, U., ... & Jüni, P. (2007). Meta-analysis: chondroitin for osteoarthritis of the knee or hip. Annals of internal medicine, 146(8), 580-590.
1. Debbi, E. M., Agar, G., Fichman, G., Ziv, Y. B., Kardosh, R., Halperin, N., ... & Debi, R. (2011). Efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane supplementation on osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled study. BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 11(1), 1.
2. Kalman, D. S., Feldman, S., Scheinberg, A. R., Krieger, D. R., & Bloomer, R. J. (2012). Influence of methylsulfonylmethane on markers of exercise recovery and performance in healthy men: a pilot study. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 9(1), 1-11.
3. Barmaki, S., Bohlooli, S., Khoshkhahesh, F., & Nakhostin-Roohi, B. (2012). Effect of methylsulfonylmethane supplementation on exercise-Induced muscle damage and total antioxidant capacity. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness, 52(2), 170-174.
4. Ezaki, J., Hashimoto, M., Hosokawa, Y., & Ishimi, Y. (2013). Assessment of safety and efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane on bone and knee joints in osteoarthritis animal model. Journal of bone and mineral metabolism, 31(1), 16-25.
1. Holmes, M. W. A., Bayliss, M. T., & Muir, H. (1988). Hyaluronic acid in human articular cartilage. Age-related changes in content and size.Biochemical Journal, 250(2), 435-441.
2. Kalman, D. S., Heimer, M., Valdeon, A., Schwartz, H., & Sheldon, E. (2008). Effect of a natural extract of chicken combs with a high content of hyaluronic acid (Hyal-Joint®) on pain relief and quality of life in subjects with knee osteoarthritis: a pilot randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Nutrition Journal, 7(1), 1.
3. Paker, N., Tekdös, D., Kesiktas, N., & Soy, D. (2006). Comparison of the therapeutic efficacy of TENS versus intra-articular hyaluronic acid injection in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a prospective randomized study. Advances in therapy, 23(2), 342-353.
4. Petrella, R. J. (2005). Hyaluronic acid for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: long-term outcomes from a naturalistic primary care experience. American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation, 84(4), 278-283.
5. Benfield, P., & Goa, K. L. (1994). Hyaluronic Acid: A review of its Pharmacology and Use as a Surgical Aid in Ophtalmology and its Therapeutic Potential in Joint Disease and Wound Healing. Drugs, 47(3), 536-66.
1. Spector, T. D., Calomme, M. R., Anderson, S. H., Clement, G., Bevan, L., Demeester, N., ... & Powell, J. J. (2008). Choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid supplementation as an adjunct to calcium/vitamin D3 stimulates markers of bone formation in osteopenic females: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 9(1), 1.
2. Calomme, M., Geusens, P., Demeester, N., Behets, G. J., D’Haese, P., Sindambiwe, J. B., ... & Berghe, D. V. (2006). Partial prevention of long-term femoral bone loss in aged ovariectomized rats supplemented with choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid. Calcified tissue international, 78(4), 227-232.
3. Macdonald, H. M., Hardcastle, A. C., Jugdaohsingh, R., Fraser, W. D., Reid, D. M., & Powell, J. J. (2012). Dietary silicon interacts with oestrogen to influence bone health: evidence from the Aberdeen Prospective Osteoporosis Screening Study. Bone, 50(3), 681-687.
4. Kim, M. H., Bae, Y. J., Choi, M. K., & Chung, Y. S. (2009). Silicon supplementation improves the bone mineral density of calcium-deficient ovariectomized rats by reducing bone resorption. Biological trace element research, 128(3), 239-247.
1. Guennen, M., Gillum, T., Dokladny, K., Bedrick, E., Schneider, S., & Moseley, P. (2011). Thermotolerance and heat acclimation may share a common mechanism in humans. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 301(2), R524-R533.
2. Boots, A. W., Drent, M., de Boer, V. C., Bast, A., & Haenen, G. R. (2011). Quercetin reduces markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in sarcoidosis. Clinical nutrition, 30(4), 506-512.
3. Edwards, R. L., Lyon, T., Litwin, S. E., Rabovsky, A., Symons, J. D., & Jalili, T. (2007). Quercetin reduces blood pressure in hypertensive subjects.The Journal of nutrition, 137(11), 2405-2411.
4. Talirevic, E., & Sehovic, J. (2012). Quercetin in the treatment of dyslipidemia. Medical Archives, 66(2), 87.
Milk Thistle Extract
1. Mulrow, C., Lawrence, V., Jacobs, B., Dennehy, C., Sapp, J., Ramirez, G., ... & Chiquette, E. (2000). Milk thistle: effects on liver disease and cirrhosis and clinical adverse effects: summary.
2. Abenavoli, L., Capasso, R., Milic, N., & Capasso, F. (2010). Milk thistle in liver diseases: past, present, future. Phytotherapy Research, 24(10), 1423-1432.
3. Pradhan, S. C., & Girish, C. (2006). A hepatoprotective herbal drug, silymarin from experimental pharmacology to clinical medicine. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 124(5), 491.
1. Holdiness, M. R. (1991). Clinical pharmacokinetics of N-acetylcysteine. Clinical pharmacokinetics, 20(2), 123-134.
2. Wang, L., Wang, Z., & Liu, J. (2010). Protective effect of N-acetylcysteine on experimental chronic lead nephrotoxicity in immature female rats. Human & experimental toxicology, 29(7), 581-591.
3. Kasperczyk, S., Dobrakowski, M., Kasperczyk, A., Ostałowska, A., & Birkner, E. (2013). The administration of N-acetylcysteine reduces oxidative stress and regulates glutathione metabolism in the blood cells of workers exposed to lead. Clinical Toxicology, 51(6), 480-486.
4. Kasperczyk, A., Słowińska-Łożyńska, L., Dobrakowski, M., Zalejska-Fiolka, J., & Kasperczyk, S. (2014). The effect of lead-induced oxidative stress on blood viscosity and rheological properties of erythrocytes in lead-exposed humans. Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation, 56(3), 187-195.
1. Amano J, Suzuki A, Sunamori M. Salutary effect of reduced glutathione on renal function in coronary artery bypass operation. J Am Coll Surg 1994;179:714-20. View abstract.
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6. Bains JS, Shaw CA. Neurodegenerative disorders in humans: the role of glutathione in oxidative stress-mediated neuronal death. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 1997;25:335-58. View abstract.
7. Borok Z, Buhl R, Grimes GJ, et al. Effect of glutathione aerosol on an oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Lancet 1991;338:215-6. View abstract.
1. DiSilvestro, R. A., Joseph, E., Zhao, S., & Bomser, J. (2012). Diverse effects of a low dose supplement of lipidated curcumin in healthy middle-aged people. Nutrition Journal, 11(1), 1.
2. Chainani-Wu, N., Madden, E., Lozada-Nur, F., & Silverman, S. (2012). High-dose curcuminoids are efficacious in the reduction in symptoms and signs of oral lichen planus. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 66(5), 752-760.
3. Belcaro, G., Cesarone, M. R., Dugall, M., Pellegrini, L., Ledda, A., Grossi, M. G., ... & Appendino, G. (2010). Efficacy and safety of Meriva®, a curcumin-phosphatidylcholine complex, during extended administration in osteoarthritis patients. Altern Med Rev, 15(4), 337-44.
4. Hanai, H., Iida, T., Takeuchi, K., Watanabe, F., Maruyama, Y., Andoh, A., ... & Yamada, M. (2006). Curcumin maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis: randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 4(12), 1502-1506.
5. Di Pierro, F., Rapacioli, G., Di Maio, E. A., Appendino, G., Franceschi, F., & Togni, S. (2013). Comparative evaluation of the pain-relieving properties of a lecithinized formulation of curcumin (Meriva (®)), nimesulide, and acetaminophen. J Pain Res, 6, 201-205.
1. Lee et al. 2012; Effects of Taraxacum officinale on fatigue and immunological parameters in mice.
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3. Choi et al. 2010; Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) root and leaf on cholesterol-fed rabbits.
4. Turski et al. 2011; Distribution, synthesis, and absorption of kynurenic acid in plants.
5. Domitrovic et al. 2010; Antifibrotic activity of Taraxacum officinale root in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice.
6. Chatterjee et al 2011; The efficacy of dandelion root extract in inducing apoptosis in drug-resistant human melanoma cells. 7. Ovadje et al 2012; Efficient induction of extrinsic cell death by dandelion root extract in human chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) cells.
1. Beaux D, Fleurentin J, Mortier F. Effect of extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth, Hieracium pilosella L., Sambucus nigra L. and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. in rats. Phytother Res. 1999;13(3):222-5.
2. Chauhan B, Yu C, Krantis A, Scott I, Arnason JT, Marles RJ, Foster BC. In vitro activity of uva-ursi against cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and P-glycoprotein. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;85(11):1099-107.
3. Grases F, Melero G, Costa-Bauza A, Prieto R, March JG Urolithiasis and phytotherapy. Int Urol Nephrol. 1994;26(5):507-11.
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5. Larsson B, Jonasson A, Fianu S. Prophylactic effect of UVA-E in women with recurrent cystitis: a preliminary report. Curr Ther Res. 1993;53:441-3.
6. Matsuda H, Nakamura S, Tanaka T, Kubo M. [Pharmacological studies on leaf of arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. V. Effects of water extract from arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. (Bearberry leaf) on the antiallergic anti-inflammatory activities of dexamethasone ointment.] Yakugaku Zasshi - J Pharm Soc Jpn. 1992;112(9):673-7.
7. Matsuda H, Nakata H, Tanaka T, Kubo M. [a Pharmacological study on Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. II. Combined effects of arbutin and prednisolone or dexamethasone on immuno-inflammation] Yakugaku Zasshi. 1990;110(1):68-76.
1. Wax, B., Hilton, L., Vickers, B., Gilliland, K., & Conrad, M. (2013). Effects of glycine-arginine-alpha-ketoisocaproic acid supplementation in college-age trained females during multi-bouts of resistance exercise. J Diet Suppl, 10(1), 6-16.
2. Nelson, M. J., Harris, M. B., Boluyt, M. O., Hwang, H. S., & Starnes, J. W. (2011). Effect of N-2-mercaptopropionyl glycine on exercise-induced cardiac adaptations. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 300(4), R993-R1000..
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5. Jacobs, P. L., Goldstein, E. R., Blackburn, W., Orem, I., & Hughes, J. J. (2009). Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine produces enhanced anaerobic work capacity with reduced lactate accumulation in resistance trained males. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 6, 9. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-6-9
1. Bisset, NG. Juniper fructus. 1994;283-285.
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3. Stanic, G, Samarzija, I, and Blazevic, N. Time-dependent diuretic response in rats treated with juniper berry preparations. Phytother Res 1998;12:494-497.
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2. Lis-Balchin, M., Hart, S., and Simpson, E. Buchu (Agathosma betulina and A. crenulata, Rutaceae) essential oils: their pharmacological action on guinea-pig ileum and antimicrobial activity on microorganisms. J Pharm.Pharmacol. 2001;53(4):579-582
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1. Fintelmann V. Antidyspeptic and lipid-lowering effects of artichoke leaf extract - results of clinical studies into the efficacy and tolerance of Hepar-SL forte involving 553 patients. J Gen Med 1996;2:3-19.
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4. Hammerl, H. and Pichler, O. [Possibility of causal treatment of bile duct diseases with an artichoke preparation.]. Wien.Med Wochenschr. 6-29-1957;107(25-26):545-546
5. Kiso, Y., Tohkin, M., and Hikino, H. Antihepatotoxic principles of Atractylodes rhizomes. J Nat.Prod. 1983;46(5):651-654