There is nothing quite like a high-octane training session, so it is no surprise that pre workout supplements have become so popular.
However, those long lists of ingredients in proprietary blends only create the façade of an effective supplement when all you really end up with is enough caffeine to “feel” it and little else. Until Rhino BLACK.
MuscleSport is PROUD to bring you the best that science has to offer, so there are no blends. Only efficaciously-dosed, proven ingredients that have been carefully selected to provide all that is needed from a pre workout supplement: energy, focus, pumps, and performance.
Here are just a few of the rigorously validated ingredients in Rhino BLACK.
- 6g Citrulline Malate – A dual-threat: Provides huge boosts to training volume and stimulates nitric oxide production. More training volume. Bigger pumps. Maximized gains.
- 400mg Caffeine Matrix – All the fat-burning, attention-enhancing effects of caffeine without the hard crash or upset stomach!
- 750mg Nitrosigine – The world’s most effective form of arginine works synergistically with citrulline to maintain improved blood flow up to 3 hours.
- 750mg L-Tyrosine with 75mg Hordenine – L-Tyrosine is a precursor to adrenaline while Hordenine works to keep adrenaline active within the body.
- 2g Creatine Magnapower – The single, most effective supplement for increasing muscle mass and strength as highly bioavailable magnesium chelate.
These are just the best of the best. Add on top of that the other half of the proven ingredients and you’ll clearly see just how superior Rhino BLACK is compared to the rest of the field.
The best have nothing to hide in something like a mysterious proprietary blend, and there are no secrets in Rhino BLACK – just pure, hard-working ingredients to get your game and your physique to the next level with piercing focus, crushing strength, electrifying energy, flushing muscle pumps, and persevering endurance.
Just like nothing can stack up to a high-octane training session, nothing stacks up to the best pre workout in the game, Rhino BLACK.
*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
NITRIC OXIDE RECYCLING COMPLEX
Citrulline Malate is a non-essential amino acid that eventually converts to nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is a vasodilator that can help to lower blood pressure and improve blood flow to both organs and muscles.
- Studies have shown that Citrulline Malate enhances exercise tolerance by reducing levels of blood ammonia and lactate that are typically elevated during strenuous exercise.
- This ingredient will allow you to train with less rest in between sets and elevate your endurance capacity.
- A recent research study found individuals who consumed citrulline malate for 15 days were able to increase ATP production during exercise by 34% and improve phospho-creatine resynthesis after exercise by 20%.
TrimethylGlycine (Betaine Anhydrous)
Betaine helps to support methylation reactions in the body which include but are not limited to liver detoxification and neurotransmitter production.
- It has been shown to increase energy levels as well as muscle strength and recovery.
- Betaine's effects on the neurotransmitters can help to increase the effectiveness of the “mind-muscle” connection.
- Betaine works synergistically with Choline (another ingredient found in RHINO BLACK).
- A study conducted by the University of Connecticut found that individuals supplementing with 1.25 grams of betaine twice/daily increased bench press power by 20%.
Agmapure (Agmatine Sulfate)
Agmatine Sulfate helps improve nutrient partitioning which leads to an increase in muscle glycogen (carbs stored in muscle tissues) which then leads to more water retained WITHIN the muscle. This creates a fuller look to the muscles and a greater pump while hitting the iron.
- Agmatine Sulfate also increases NO production by working as a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme NO Synthase.
- There are studies to suggest that the nutrient partitioning effects of agmatine sulfate are possibly due to its ability to increase the insulin response to carbohydrates. This could be further explained by the increased blood flow to the muscle that occurs with increased NO production.
- LH and GH levels have been shown to be increased through the effects of Agmatine Sulfate and its possible effects on the hypothalamus.
- Agmatine has also been shown to manipulate pain receptors which may allow you to train past normal pain thresholds.
Taurine, has a myriad of benefits. From helping the body to metabolize fat, improving insulin sensitivity, raising testosterone levels, as an antioxidant, higher performance and quicker recovery during athletic training and increasing cardiovascular health… it goes without saying that Taurine is a great ingredient to have in your wheelhouse
- Zhang et al. (2004) found that individuals who supplemented with taurine for 1 week before an exhaustive exercise bout significantly improved time to exhaustion, VO2 max, and maximal workload. It also decreased exercise-induced DNA damage.
Nitrosigine (Arginine Inositol Silicate)
Arginine (NITROSIGINE) is a precursor to nitric oxide and expands blood vessels to optimize blood flow. Silicate is contained within the walls of the arteries to help maintain their structural integrity.
- These ingredients work in synergy to help increase the blood flow and the structural integrity of the artery walls.
- Preclinical data has shown that Nitrosigine is superior to standard arginine… with 2x the blood flow in vasodilatation response.
Ornithine, when bound by salt at the molecular level to Orotate (orotic acid), is much more bio-available than in its HCL or free form.
- Ornithine Works in synergy with Arginine in the metabolism of waste caused by intense exercise.
- By increasing Nitric Oxide production and decreasing waste – you are able to train longer and support greater results
- A 2008 study conducted by Sugino et al. discovered supplementation with ornithine was able to reduce perceptions of fatigue to 52% of placebo on a prolonged endurance test and was able to reduce ammonia accrual during exercise.
Beta Vulgaris (beets) is extremely rich in nitrates and other ergogenic compounds. These components have been systematically proven to improve workout performance.
- Nitrates in beets have been shown to improve blood flow and exercise efficiency.
- Betalains in beets improve oxygen carrying capacity and endurance.
- Supplementing with beet juice has been shown to reduce the energy (ATP) cost of every muscle contraction, leading to improved work load and sustained performance.
CELLULAR ENERGY COMPLEX
3-Aminopropanoic acid is a precursor to carnosine that is better for improving muscle carnosine concentrations than carnosine supplementation itself. Carnosine acts as an intracellular buffer, neutralizing acids and bases.
- Improves high-intensity anaerobic performance, such as high-rep sets and repeated sprints (HIIT).
- A study by Van Thienen et al. (2010) found 3-aminopropanoic acid supplementation to improve power output by 11.5%
- Long term supplementation with 3-aminopropanoic acid has been observed to increase lean mass gain while decreasing fat mass.
Highly Branched Cyclic Dextrin
Cyclic Dextrin is a clinically studied carbohydrate that is rapidly absorbed and provides fuel (glycogen) to working muscles.
- In cyclists supplementing with either HBCD or maltodextrin, HBCD was shown to dramatically enhance performance vs. the same quantity of maltodextrin.
- During HIIT, supplemention with HBCD extends time to exhaustion by 70% vs. glucose, greatly enhancing cardiovascular gains and fat loss potential of training.
- Athletes consuming HBCD instead of their normal sports drink report fewer gastrointestinal disorders and side effects.
- Use of HBCD during athletic events has been observed to reduce stress hormone and inflammatory cytokine response, leading to improved performance and recovery.
Creatine MagnaPower® (Creatine Magnesium Chelate)
By combining magnesium to the creatine mixture in this compound – it allows (in a similar fashion to COP) the creatine to be absorbed and utilized for anabolic processes and prevents conversion to creatinine through the process of cyclization.
- Creatine MagnaPower pulls together both creatine and magnesium for the most effective ATP synthesis.
- The ISSN (International Society of Sports Nutrition) position stand on creatine monohydrate (CM) found that short-term CM supplementation has been reported to improve maximal power/strength (5–15%), work performed during sets of maximal effort muscle contractions (5–15%), single-effort sprint performance (1–5%), and work performed during repetitive sprint performance (5–15%). Long-term CM supplementation appears to enhance the overall quality of training, leading to 5 to 15% greater gains in strength and performance.
MENTAL STIMULATION and FOCUS COMPLEX
L-Tyrosine helps to activate metabolic pathways that produce the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine - which are typically produced during moments of stress on the body and provide a boost in the terms of a “fight or flight” scenario.
- Epinephrine and norepinephrine are depleted quickly during these moments of stress due to a lack of L-Tyrosine.
- The addition of this amino acid to RHINO BLACK will help give you an extra PUSH and can make a big difference to help you FIGHT through your workouts and plateaus.
- Hoffman et al. (2010) research results indicate that acute ingestion of supplement including L-tyrosine and anhydrous caffeine can maintain reaction time and subjective feelings of focus and alertness to both visual and auditory stimuli in healthy college students following exhaustive exercise.
Tri-Caffeine Matrix (Caffeine Anhydrous, DiCaffeine Malate, Caffeine Citrate)
This blend of caffeine helps to provide effectively dosed stimulation for your training and not keep you up all night long.
- It is also formulated to help fight that horrible crash you might experience with stimulated laden pre workouts.
- Multiple studies have confirmed can improve muscular endurance and power, focus and cognitive performance, and improve energy levels. Caffeine has also been shown to have a thermogenic effect (heating/calorie burning) at rest and may increase the use of fats for fuel during exercise.
- Doherty and Smith performed a meta-analysis of caffeine's effects on perceived exertion and found a 5.6% decrease in RPE (rating of perceived exertion) during exercise. This means exercise may feel easier at higher effort levels when supplementing with caffeine.
Choline Complex (CDP Choline/Choline Bitartrate)
Choline is an essential nutrient for brain health and synaptic plasticity.
- Choline improves structural integrity, signaling capacity and the fluidity of neural membranes. It’s estimated that close to 90% of the population does not get the recommended amount of choline daily.
- It has been shown that a dose of 500mg of Choline can boost focus, mood and concentration abilities.
- This is tantamount to pushing through your workout. Utilizing this effectively dosed compound, you will be able to focus on taking less rest or being distracted during your training. Giving your 110% will really be your 110%.
- A study conducted by Sun et al. (1999) reported that subjects who supplemented with choline for 4 weeks improved learning performance and memory compared to a placebo group.
Extracted from the roots of sprouted barley, hordenine has an adrenaline-like effect stemming from its ability to release noradrenaline.
- This increases heart rate and blood flow.
- The adrenaline effect is long lasting and does not fade early in your workouts. This will create a boost in athletic performance throughout your entire workout.
- Hordenine may also increase peripheral blood flow volume and have a positive inotropic effect (increases the strength of contraction) upon the heart.
Q: What is the best way to take Rhino BLACK?
A: Mix one scoop of Rhino BLACK into 16-20 ounces of water and consume 30 minutes prior to training.
Q: What other MuscleSport products do you recommend stacking with Rhino BLACK?
Q: I see a full serving of Rhino BLACK has 400mg of caffeine. Is that amount safe?
A: Generally speaking, yes. A large review by the European Food Safety Authority concluded that a daily safe dose of 400mg is safe for adults.
We suggest not taking any other stimulants (like coffee) on the days you take Rhino BLACK. We also recommend starting with a half scoop to assess your tolerance before moving on to a full scoop.
Q: I heard creatine can cause kidney problems and cause cramping. Is that true?
A: Absolutely not. Creatine is the most studied and effective muscle building supplement ever. Over 500 studies have been conducted on creatine and none have shown to cause any adverse side effects. However, you should expect to see big improvements in strength, power, and endurance after taking creatine.
Q: What makes Rhino BLACK better than other pre workouts?
A: A lot of other pre workouts use ingredients that are ineffective, not properly dosed, or contain proprietary blends.
All the ingredients in Rhino BLACK are research backed and dosed efficaciously based on the current scientific literature.
What's more, Rhino BLACK gives you full label disclosure so you know EXACTLY what you are getting with each serving.
1. Bendahan, D., Mattei, J. P., Ghattas, B., Confort-Gouny, S., Le Guern, M. E., & Cozzone, P. J. (2002). Citrulline/malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle. British journal of sports medicine,36(4), 282-289.
2. Hickner, R. C., Tanner, C. J., Evans, C. A., Clark, P. D., Haddock, A., Fortune, C., ... & Mccammon, M. (2006). L-citrulline reduces time to exhaustion and insulin response to a graded exercise test. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 38(4), 660-666.
3. Pérez-Guisado, J., & Jakeman, P. M. (2010). Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(5), 1215-1222.
4. Sureda, A., Córdova, A., Ferrer, M. D., Pérez, G., Tur, J. A., & Pons, A. (2010). L-citrulline-malate influence over branched chain amino acid utilization during exercise. European journal of applied physiology, 110(2), 341-351.
1. Apicella, J. M., Lee, E. C., Bailey, B. L., Saenz, C., Anderson, J. M., Craig, S. A., ... & Maresh, C. M. (2013). Betaine supplementation enhances anabolic endocrine and Akt signaling in response to acute bouts of exercise.European journal of applied physiology, 113(3), 793-802.
2. Trepanowski, J. F., Farney, T. M., Mccarthy, C. G., Schilling, B. K., Craig, S. A., & Bloomer, R. J. (2011). The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation and associated biochemical parameters in resistance trained men. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(12), 3461-3471.
3. Lee, E. C., Maresh, C. M., Kraemer, W. J., Yamamoto, L. M., Hatfield, D. L., Bailey, B. L., ... & Craig, S. A. (2010). Ergogenic effects of betaine supplementation on strength and power performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr,7(1), 27.
4. Hoffman, J. R., Ratamess, N. A., Kang, J., Gonzalez, A. M., Beller, N. A., & Craig, S. A. (2011). Effect of 15 days of betaine ingestion on concentric and eccentric force outputs during isokinetic exercise. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(8), 2235-2241.
5. Cholewa, J. M., Wyszczelska-Rokiel, M., Glowacki, R., Jakubowski, H., Matthews, T., Wood, R., ... & Paolone, V. (2013). Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone. J Int Soc. Sports Nutr, 10(1), 39.
1. Ahn, S. K., S. Hong, et al. (2011). "Effects of agmatine on hypoxic microglia and activity of nitric oxide synthase." Brain Res 1373: 48-54.
2. Arndt, M. A., V. Battaglia, et al. (2009). "The arginine metabolite agmatine protects mitochondrial function and confers resistance to cellular apoptosis." Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 296(6): C1411-1419.
3. Berkels, R., D. Taubert, et al. (2004). "Agmatine signaling: odds and threads." Cardiovasc Drug Rev 22(1): 7-16.
4. Gao, Y., B. Gumusel, et al. (1995). "Agmatine: a novel endogenous vasodilator substance." Life Sci 57(8): PL83-86.
5. Haenisch, B., I. von Kugelgen, et al. (2008). "Regulatory mechanisms underlying agmatine homeostasis in humans." Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 295(5): G1104-1110.
6. Halaris, A. and J. Plietz (2007). "Agmatine: metabolic pathway and spectrum of activity in brain." CNS Drugs 21(11): 885-900.
7. L-arginine stimulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion through membrane depolarization and independent of nitric oxide.
8. Keynan, O., Mirovsky, Y., Dekel, S., Gilad, V. H., & Gilad, G. M. (2010). Safety and Efficacy of Dietary Agmatine Sulfate in Lumbar Disc‐associated Radiculopathy. An Open‐label, Dose‐escalating Study Followed by a Randomized, Double‐blind, Placebo‐controlled Trial. Pain Medicine, 11(3), 356-368.
1. Zhang, M., Izumi, I., Kagamimori, S., Sokejima, S., Yamagami, T., Liu, Z., & Qi, B. (2004). Role of taurine supplementation to prevent exercise-induced oxidative stress in healthy young men. Amino acids, 26(2), 203-207.
2. BOUCHAMA, A., YUSUF, A., AL-SEDAIRY, S. U. L. T. A. N., & EL-YAZIGI, A. D. N. A. N. (1993). Alteration of taurine homeostasis in acute heatstroke.Critical care medicine, 21(4), 551-554.
3. Gwacham, N., & Wagner, D. R. (2012). Acute effects of a caffeine-taurine energy drink on repeated sprint performance of American college football players. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 22(2), 109-116.
4. Warskulat, U., Brookmann, S., Felsner, I., Brenden, H., Grether‐Beck, S., & Häussinger, D. (2008). Ultraviolet A induces transport of compatible organic osmolytes in human dermal fibroblasts. Experimental Dermatology, 17(12), 1031-1036.
1. Kalman, D. S., Feldman, S., Samson, A., & Krieger, D. R. (2015). A clinical evaluation to determine the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of an inositol-stabilized arginine silicate dietary supplement in healthy adult males. Clinical pharmacology: advances and applications, 7, 103.
1. Sugino, T., Shirai, T., Kajimoto, Y., & Kajimoto, O. (2008). L-ornithine supplementation attenuates physical fatigue in healthy volunteers by modulating lipid and amino acid metabolism. Nutrition research, 28(11), 738-743.
1. Lansley, K. E., Winyard, P. G., Fulford, J., Vanhatalo, A., Bailey, S. J., Blackwell, J. R., ... & Jones, A. M. (2011). Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of walking and running: a placebo-controlled study.Journal of Applied Physiology, 110(3), 591-600.
2. Cermak, N. M., Gibala, M. J., & Van Loon, L. J. (2012). Nitrate supplementation's improvement of 10-km time-trial performance in trained cyclists. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and exercise Metabolism,22(1), 64.
3. Bailey, S. J., Fulford, J., Vanhatalo, A., Winyard, P. G., Blackwell, J. R., DiMenna, F. J., ... & Jones, A. M. (2010). Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances muscle contractile efficiency during knee-extensor exercise in humans. Journal of applied physiology, 109(1), 135-148.
4. Fulford, J., Winyard, P. G., Vanhatalo, A., Bailey, S. J., Blackwell, J. R., & Jones, A. M. (2013). Influence of dietary nitrate supplementation on human skeletal muscle metabolism and force production during maximum voluntary contractions. Pflügers Archiv-European Journal of Physiology, 465(4), 517-528.
5. Bailey, S. J., Winyard, P., Vanhatalo, A., Blackwell, J. R., DiMenna, F. J., Wilkerson, D. P., ... & Jones, A. M. (2009). Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of low-intensity exercise and enhances tolerance to high-intensity exercise in humans. Journal of applied physiology, 107(4), 1144-1155.
6. Vanhatalo, A., Fulford, J., Bailey, S. J., Blackwell, J. R., Winyard, P. G., & Jones, A. M. (2011). Dietary nitrate reduces muscle metabolic perturbation and improves exercise tolerance in hypoxia. The Journal of physiology, 589(22), 5517-5528.
7. Montenegro, C. F., Kwong, D. A., Minow, Z. A., Davis, B. A., Lozada, C. F., & Casazza, G. A. (2016). Betalain-rich concentrate supplementation improves exercise performance and recovery in competitive triathletes. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 42(2), 166-172.
- Van, R. Thienen, K. Proeyen Van, B. Eynde Vanden, Joke Puype, Thomas Lefere, and Peter Hespel. "Beta-alanine improves sprint performance in endurance cycling." Medicine and science in sports and exercise41, no. 4 (2009): 898-903.
- Artioli, G. G., Gualano, B., Smith, A., Stout, J., & Lancha Jr, A. H. (2010). Role of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine and exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 42(6), 1162-1173.
- Smith, A. E., Walter, A. A., Graef, J. L., Kendall, K. L., Moon, J. R., Lockwood, C. M., ... & Stout, J. R. (2009). Effects of β-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 6(1), 5.
- Walter, A. A., Smith, A. E., Kendall, K. L., Stout, J. R., & Cramer, J. T. (2010). Six weeks of high-intensity interval training with and without β-alanine supplementation for improving cardiovascular fitness in women. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(5), 1199-1207.
- Kern, B. D., & Robinson, T. L. (2011). Effects of β-alanine supplementation on performance and body composition in collegiate wrestlers and football players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(7), 1804-1815.
- Sweeney, K. M., Wright, G. A., Brice, A. G., & Doberstein, S. T. (2010). The effect of β-alanine supplementation on power performance during repeated sprint activity. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(1), 79-87.
- Sale, C., Saunders, B., Hudson, S., Wise, J. A., Harris, R. C., & Sunderland, C. D. (2011). Effect of β-alanine plus sodium bicarbonate on high-intensity cycling capacity. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 43(10), 1972-1978.
- Chung, W., Shaw, G., Anderson, M. E., Pyne, D. B., Saunders, P. U., Bishop, D. J., & Burke, L. M. (2012). Effect of 10 week beta-alanine supplementation on competition and training performance in elite swimmers. Nutrients, 4(10), 1441-1453.
Highly Branched Cyclic Dextrin
1. Takii, H., KOMETANI, T., NISHIMURA, T., KURIKI, T., & FUSHIKI, T. (2004). A sports drink based on highly branched cyclic dextrin generates few gastrointestinal disorders in untrained men during bicycle exercise. Food science and technology research, 10(4), 428-431.
2. Kometani T, Takii H, Shiraki T, Nomura T. Endurance enhancing effect of cyclic cluster dextrin. FOOD Style21. 2003;7:62–65.
3. Takii, H., Takii, N. Y., Kometani, T., Nishimura, T., Nakae, T., Kuriki, T., & Fushiki, T. (2005). Fluids containing a highly branched cyclic dextrin influence the gastric emptying rate. International journal of sports medicine,26(4), 314-319.
4. Furuyashiki, T., Tanimoto, H., Yokoyama, Y., Kitaura, Y., Kuriki, T., & Shimomura, Y. (2014). Effects of ingesting highly branched cyclic dextrin during endurance exercise on the rate of perceived exertion and blood components associated with energy metabolism. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 78(12), 2117-2119.
5. Takii, H., Ishihara, K., Kometani, T., Okada, S., & Fushiki, T. (1999). Enhancement of swimming endurance in mice by highly branched cyclic dextrin. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 63(12), 2045-2052.
1. Buford TW, Kreider RB, Stout JR, Greenwood M, Campbell B, Spano M, Ziegenfuss T, Lopez H, Landis J, Antonio J: International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: creatine supplementation and exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2007, 4:6.
2. Earnest CP, Snell PG, Rodriguez R, Almada AL, Mitchell TL: The effect of creatine monohydrate ingestion on anaerobic power indices, muscular strength and body composition. Acta physiologica Scandinavica 1995, 153:207-209.
3. Kreider RB, Ferreira M, Wilson M, Grindstaff P, Plisk S, Reinardy J, Cantler E, Almada AL: Effects of creatine supplementation on body composition, strength, and sprint performance. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 1998, 30:73-82.
4. Lopez, R. M., Casa, D. J., McDermott, B. P., Ganio, M. S., Armstrong, L. E., & Maresh, C. M. (2009). Does creatine supplementation hinder exercise heat tolerance or hydration status? A systematic review with meta-analyses. Journal of athletic training, 44(2), 215-223.
5. Candow, D. G., Chilibeck, P. D., Burke, D. G., Mueller, K. D., & Lewis, J. D. (2011). Effect of different frequencies of creatine supplementation on muscle size and strength in young adults. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(7), 1831-1838.
6. McConell, G. K., Shinewell, J., Stephens, T. J., Stathis, C. G., Canny, B. J., & Snow, R. J. (2005). Creatine supplementation reduces muscle inosine monophosphate during endurance exercise in humans. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 37(12), 2054.
7. Rae, C., Digney, A. L., McEwan, S. R., & Bates, T. C. (2003). Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 270(1529), 2147-2150.
1. Benedict, C. R., Anderson, G. H., & Sole, M. J. (1983). The influence of oral tyrosine and tryptophan feeding on plasma catecholamines in man. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 38(3), 429-435.
2. Alonso, R., Gibson, C. J., Wurtman, R. J., Agharanya, J. C., & Prieto, L. (1982). Elevation of urinary catecholamines and their metabolites following tyrosine administration in humans. Biological Psychiatry, 17(7), 781-790.
3. Agharanya, J. C., Alonso, R., & Wurtman, R. J. (1981). Changes in catecholamine excretion after short-term tyrosine ingestion in normally fed human subjects. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 34(1), 82-87.
4. Acworth, I. N., During, M. J., & Wurtman, R. J. (1988). Tyrosine: effects on catecholamine release. Brain research bulletin, 21(3), 473-477.
5. Neri, D. F., Wiegmann, D., Stanny, R. R., Shappell, S. A., McCardie, A., & McKay, D. L. (1995). The effects of tyrosine on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine.
1. Goldstein, E. R., Ziegenfuss, T., Kalman, D., Kreider, R., Campbell, B., Wilborn, C., ... & Wildman, R. (2010). International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 7(1), 5.
2. Spriet, L. L. (1995). Caffeine and performance. International journal of sport nutrition, 5, S84-S84.
3. Beck, T. W., Housh, T. J., Schmidt, R. J., Johnson, G. O., Housh, D. J., Coburn, J. W., & Malek, M. H. (2006). The acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on strength, muscular endurance, and anaerobic capabilities. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 20(3), 506-510.
4. McLellan, T. M., Kamimori, G. H., Voss, D. M., Tate, C., & Smith, S. J. (2007). Caffeine effects on physical and cognitive performance during sustained operations. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine, 78(9), 871-877.
5. Lieberman, H. R., Tharion, W. J., Shukitt-Hale, B., Speckman, K. L., & Tulley, R. (2002). Effects of caffeine, sleep loss, and stress on cognitive performance and mood during US Navy SEAL training. Psychopharmacology, 164(3), 250-261.
6. Costill, D. L., Dalsky, G. P., & Fink, W. J. (1977). Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and exercise performance. Medicine and science in sports, 10(3), 155-158.
7. Kovacs, E. M., Stegen, J. H., & Brouns, F. (1998). Effect of caffeinated drinks on substrate metabolism, caffeine excretion, and Performance. Journal of Applied Physiology, 85(2), 709-715.
1. Moreno, H., de Brugada, I., & Hall, G. (2013). Chronic dietary choline supplementation modulates attentional change in adult rats. Behavioural brain research, 243, 278-285.
2. Blusztajn, J. K., & Mellott, T. J. (2013). Neuroprotective actions of perinatal choline nutrition. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 51(3), 591-599.
3. Krzysztof Blusztajn, J., & J Mellott, T. (2012). Choline nutrition programs brain development via DNA and histone methylation. Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry-Central Nervous System Agents), 12(2), 82-94.
4. Biasi, E. (2011). The effects of dietary choline. Neuroscience bulletin, 27(5), 330-342.
1. Barwell, C. J., Basma, A. N., Lafi, M. A. K., & Leake, L. D. (1989). Deamination of hordenine by monoamine oxidase and its action on vasa deferentia of the rat. Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology, 41(6), 421-423.
2. Hapke, HJ, Strathmann, W. (1995). Pharmacological effects of Hordenine. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 1995 Jun;102(6):228-32.
3. Frank, M., Weckman, T. J., Wood, T., Woods, W. E., TAI, C. L., CHANG, S. L., ... & Tobin, T. (1990). Hordenine: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and behavioural effects in the horse. Equine veterinary journal, 22(6), 437-441.
California’s Proposition 65 entitles California consumers to special warnings.
WARNING: Cancer and Reproductive Harm - www.P65warnings.ca.gov/