Rhino Black Forbidden Fruit™ is MuscleSport’s most powerful pre-workout yet. This fully-loaded formula was built to provide the hands down best pre-workout experience possible. You thought you’ve had a premium pre workout before? You haven’t had anything like this.
This pre workout is the best the industry has to offer. Here’s why.
5 superior pump ingredients rapidly increase and sustain nitric oxide levels, engorging muscles with blood and nutrients. The unique combinations of ingredients in Rhino Black Forbidden Fruit™ help relax blood vessels by 3 unique mechanisms – increasing nitric oxide production, decreasing nitric oxide breakdown, and increasing the potency of available nitric oxide.
The Cellular Energy Complex benefits all aspects of performance. The ability to put in the work is what ultimately drives success, and with BetaPower™, GlycerSize™, Creatine MagnaPower®, and more, Rhino Black Forbidden Fruit™ is guaranteed to raise the ceiling on your performance levels and work capacity.
What’s better than hard work? When hard work meets smart work. In the gym, that’s the Mind-Muscle connection. This is the difference between lifting a weight and training a muscle, and it has everything to do with focus. We’ve packed over 600mg of stimulant ingredients into Rhino Black Forbidden Fruit™ along with nootropic ingredients, like Alpha-GPC, to increase energy and ensure that every rep is more effective.
L-Citrulline is a precursor to NO, capable of improving circulation, nutrient delivery, and workout performance.
- While arginine is broken down in the gut and liver, reducing its absorption and efficacy as a supplement, Citrulline survives digestion and is converted to arginine once in the body – like an Arginine Trojan Horse.
- The arginine created from the supplemented L-Citrulline is then used to produce nitric oxide (NO).
- NO relaxes the smooth muscle around the blood vessels, increasing the size of veins and their ability to deliver nutrients and clear metabolic waste.
- Citrulline has also demonstrated the ability to improve fatigue resistance and growth hormone release.
Agmatine Sulfate (as AGmass®)
Agmatine Sulfate is a byproduct of Arginine after decarboxylation. Agmatine produces other growth factors as well as structural and metabolic support within the nervous system.
- Agmatine stimulates many processes that are essential during a hard training session. It promotes optimal pump and energy in the body at a molecular level.
- Agmatine sulfate aids vasodilation (dilatation of blood vessels).
- Agmatine sulfate provides many health benefits including improved insulin sensitivity and ultimately improved body composition.
- Recent research shows agmatine can manipulate pain receptors which may allow you to train past normal pain thresholds.
Norvaline is an isomer of valine that has the function of inhibiting the arginase enzyme.
- Arginine helps increase NO levels and promote vasodilation and pumps.
- Arginase is the enzyme that breaks down arginine, decreasing the amount available to generate NO.
- Supplementing with norvaline extends the effects of other NO boosters and amplifies their vasodilating effects.
Epimedium is also known as horny goat weed, and it contains the active ingredient, Icariin.
- Icariin is a phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitor.
- PDE5 inhibition increases nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, increasing NO generation.
- Boosting NOS along with optimizing total arginine levels works synergistically to create massive pumps.
Vanadyl sulfate has been shown to significantly improve glycemic control and, thereby, improve liver and muscle sensitivity to insulin.
- Studies suggest that vanadyl sulfate helps muscle cells uptake glucose, and may help you perform better and recover faster.
- Halberstam et al. (1996) found that subjects taking small doses of vanadyl sulfate improved both hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity by enhancing insulin’s inhibitory effect on lipolysis.
- Driving glucose into muscle cells increases muscle fullness.
3-Aminopropanoic acid is a precursor to carnosine that is better for improving muscle carnosine concentrations than carnosine supplementation itself. Carnosine acts as an intracellular buffer, neutralizing acids and bases.
- Improves high-intensity anaerobic performance, such as high-rep sets and repeated sprints (HIIT).
- A study by Van Thienen et al. (2010) found 3-aminopropanoic acid supplementation to improve power output by 11.5%
- Long term supplementation with 3-aminopropanoic acid has been observed to increase lean mass gain while decreasing fat mass.
Natural Betaine (BetaPower™)
Betaine helps to support methylation reactions in the body which include but are not limited to liver detoxification and neurotransmitter production.
- It has been shown to increase energy levels as well as muscle strength and recovery.
- Betaine's effects on the neurotransmitters can help to increase the effectiveness of the “mind-muscle” connection.
- Betaine works synergistically with Choline (another ingredient found in RHINO BLACK).
- A study conducted by the University of Connecticut found that individuals supplementing with 1.25 grams of betaine twice/daily increased bench press power by 20%.
Glycerol Monostearate (as GlycerSize™)
Glycerol (1,2,3-propanetriol) is a colorless, odorless, sweet-tasting sugar alcohol. When consumed glycerol is rapidly absorbed primarily in the small intestine, distributed equally among all fluid compartments, and promotes hyperhydration by inducing an osmotic gradient.
- This brings potential benefits for endurance and stamina events, including adaptation to environmental heat/humidity stress, along with promoting blood flow associated with resistance training.
- Glycerol has also been shown to help athletes store extra water, delaying the need for hydration. This suggests improved efficiency in exercise, thermoregulation and decreased physiological stress.
- In addition, glycerol enhances plasma and intramuscular volume expansion, producing a more engorged muscular appearance.
Creatine Magnesium Chelate (as Creatine MagnaPower®)
By combining magnesium to the creatine mixture in this compound – it allows (in a similar fashion to COP) the creatine to be absorbed and utilized for anabolic processes and prevents conversion to creatinine through the process of cyclization.
- Creatine MagnaPower pulls together both creatine and magnesium for the most effective ATP synthesis.
- The ISSN (International Society of Sports Nutrition) position stand on creatine monohydrate (CM) found that short-term CM supplementation has been reported to improve maximal power/strength (5–15%), work performed during sets of maximal effort muscle contractions (5–15%), single-effort sprint performance (1–5%), and work performed during repetitive sprint performance (5–15%). Long-term CM supplementation appears to enhance the overall quality of training, leading to 5 to 15% greater gains in strength and performance.
L-Tyrosine helps to activate metabolic pathways that produce the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine - which are typically produced during moments of stress on the body and provide a boost in the terms of a “fight or flight” scenario.
- Epinephrine and norepinephrine are depleted quickly during these moments of stress due to a lack of L-Tyrosine.
- The addition of this amino acid to RHINO BLACK will help give you an extra PUSH and can make a big difference to help you FIGHT through your workouts and plateaus.
- Hoffman et al. (2010) research results indicate that acute ingestion of supplement including L-tyrosine and anhydrous caffeine can maintain reaction time and subjective feelings of focus and alertness to both visual and auditory stimuli in healthy college students following exhaustive exercise.
Alpha-GPC’s brain-boosting benefits stem from the fact that it provides the body with a source of choline, which is a nutrient that is used by the brain to produce acetylcholine.
- Acetylcholine is a critical neurotransmitter that the nerves use to pass along nerve signals and is what leads to muscle contractions.
- Having higher acetylcholine levels allows the brain to function more efficiently. This will also improve your mind-muscle connection, which can have a major impact on muscle growth.
Caffeine Anhydrous is simply caffeine with no water (around 0.05%). This has been shown to make caffeine anhydrous more potent because the body will absorb it more readily.
- Multiple studies have confirmed can improve muscular endurance and power, focus and cognitive performance, and improve energy levels.
- Caffeine has also been shown to have a thermogenic effect (heating/calorie burning) at rest and may increase the use of fats for fuel during exercise.
- Doherty and Smith performed a meta-analysis of caffeine's effects on perceived exertion and found a 5.6% decrease in RPE (rating of perceived exertion) during exercise. This means exercise may feel easier at higher effort levels when supplementing with caffeine.
- In a study conducted by Astorino et al. (2010), active men given caffeine before resistance training were able to increase maximal torque, power, and volume by 5-8%
N-Phenethyl Dimethylamine (as Eria Jarensis Extract)
From Eria Jarensis, N- Phenylethyldimethylamine is believed to produce effects comparable to 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) due to structural similarities. Due to its novelty, reports thus far are anecdotal.
- Enhances mood and focus while providing feelings of euphoria
- Boosts Fat Loss
L-Theanine is an amino acid, that when consumed produces GABA and glutamate, two neurotransmitters that act on the brain to reduce the perceived stress.
- Research suggests that L-Theanine’s biggest supplemental role may be in taking the “edge” off of other stimulants.
- A combination of L-Theanine with caffeine is noted to be synergistic in promoting thermogenesis, cognition, and attention.
- Giesbrecht et al. found the combination of L-theanine and caffeine significantly improved accuracy during task switching, self-reported alertness, and reduced self-reported tiredness.
Extracted from the roots of sprouted barley, hordenine has an adrenaline-like effect stemming from its ability to release noradrenaline.
- This increases heart rate and blood flow.
- The adrenaline effect is long lasting and does not fade early in your workouts. This will create a boost in athletic performance throughout your entire workout.
- Hordenine may also increase peripheral blood flow volume and have a positive inotropic effect (increases the strength of contraction) upon the heart.
- Lastly, hordenine stimulates the central nervous system and promotes weight loss by enhancing metabolism.
Dicaffeine Malate (as Infinergy™)
Dicaffeine Malate, as the name implies, is the combination of caffeine and malic acid.
- Adding malic acid to caffeine is thought to calm the digestive effects of caffeine and thought to replenish the energy produced by caffeine (either through increased fat oxidation or ATP production).
- Malic acid may also weaken the feeling of a caffeine crash and slow tolerance development to caffeine.
Octopamine HCl (as Octopalean™)
Octopamine is a metabolite of synephrine and a stimulant with fat-burning effects.
- Boosts energy
- Inhibits fat cells’ ability to absorb glucose
- Increases lipolysis
Huperzia Serrata Extract
Huperzia Serrata contains Huperzine A and other analogues of Huperzine, which function as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. This increases the amount of acetylcholine in the body for better mind and muscle function.
- Improves cognition and memory.
- May have neuroprotective effects.
- Increasing acetylcholine in the muscle could strengthen muscle contractions.
Q: I love Rhino Black… What’s different about Forbidden Fruit?
A: It’s hard to believe we could outdo ourselves, but here we are! Forbidden Fruit features double the number of branded ingredients, going from 3 to 6. We’ve increased dosing of some ingredients, while exchanging others. For example, Forbidden Fruit contains more performance-enhancing ingredients (over 10g!) and betaine, now as BetaPower, is dosed at 2.5g. The stim complex has been overhauled with 150mg more total stim, including more hordenine and the addition of Octopalean™ and N-Phenethyl Dimethylamine.
Q: How should I use Rhino Black Forbidden Fruit?
A: Mix 1 serving (1 scoop) in 12-16oz of water and drink ~30 minutes before training. Begin with a half scoop to assess tolerance.
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- Collins, J. K., Wu, G., Perkins-Veazie, P., Spears, K., Claypool, P. L., Baker, R. A., & Clevidence, B. A. (2007). Watermelon consumption increases plasma arginine concentrations in adults. Nutrition, 23(3), 261-266.
- Figueroa, A., Trivino, J. A., Sanchez-Gonzalez, M. A., & Vicil, F. (2010). Oral L-citrulline supplementation attenuates blood pressure response to cold pressor test in young men. American journal of hypertension, 23(1), 12-16.
- Waugh, W. H., Daeschner 3rd, C. W., Files, B. A., McConnell, M. E., & Strandjord, S. E. (2001). Oral citrulline as arginine precursor may be beneficial in sickle cell disease: early phase two results. Journal of the National Medical Association, 93(10), 363.
- Moon, J. R., Vogel, R. M., Falcone, P. H., Mosman, M. M., Tribby, A. C., Hughes, C. M., ... & Kim, M. P. (2015). A comparison of citrulline and arginine for increasing exercise-induced vasodilation and blood flow. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(1), P6.
- Joy, J. M., Vogel, R. M., Falcone, P. H., Mosman, M. M., Tribby, A. C., Hughes, C. M., ... & Kim, M. P. (2015). A comparison of raw citrulline and citrulline peptide for increasing exercise-induced vasodilation and blood flow. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(1), P18.
Agmatine Sulfate (as AGmass®)
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- L-arginine stimulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion through membrane depolarization and independent of nitric oxide.
- Keynan, O., Mirovsky, Y., Dekel, S., Gilad, V. H., & Gilad, G. M. (2010). Safety and Efficacy of Dietary Agmatine Sulfate in Lumbar Disc‐associated Radiculopathy. An Open‐label, Dose‐escalating Study Followed by a Randomized, Double‐blind, Placebo‐controlled Trial. Pain Medicine, 11(3), 356-368.
- Pokrovskiy, M. V., Korokin, M. V., Tsepeleva, S. A., Pokrovskaya, T. G., Gureev, V. V., Konovalova, E. A., ... & Babko, A. V. (2011). Arginase inhibitor in the pharmacological correction of endothelial dysfunction. International journal of hypertension, 2011.
- Huynh, N. N., Harris, E. E., Chin‐Dusting, J. F. P., & Andrews, K. L. (2009). The vascular effects of different arginase inhibitors in rat isolated aorta and mesenteric arteries. British journal of pharmacology, 156(1), 84-93.
- Ming, X. F., Rajapakse, A. G., Carvas, J. M., Ruffieux, J., & Yang, Z. (2009). Inhibition of S6K1 accounts partially for the anti-inflammatory effects of the arginase inhibitor L-norvaline. BMC cardiovascular disorders, 9(1), 12.
- Xin, Z. C., Kim, E. K., Lin, C. S., Liu, W. J., Tian, L., Yuan, Y. M., & Fu, J. (2003). Effects of icariin on cGMP-specific PDE5 and cAMP-specific PDE4 activities. Asian journal of andrology, 5(1), 15-18.
- Zhang, J., Wang, Y. B., Ma, C. G., Liu, T., Li, W. R., Gong, Y. Q., & Xin, Z. C. (2012). Icarisid II, a PDE5 inhibitor from Epimedium wanshanense, increases cellular cGMP by enhancing NOS in diabetic ED rats corpus cavernosum tissue. Andrologia, 44, 87-93.
- Chiu, J. H., Chen, K. K., Chien, T. M., Chiou, W. F., Chen, C. C., Wang, J. Y., ... & Wu, C. W. (2006). Epimedium brevicornum Maxim extract relaxes rabbit corpus cavernosum through multitargets on nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling pathway. International journal of impotence research, 18(4), 335.
- Chen, K. K., & Chiu, J. H. (2006). Effect of Epimedium brevicornum Maxim extract on elicitation of penile erection in the rat. Urology, 67(3), 631-635.
- Halberstam, M., Cohen, N., Shlimovich, P., Rossetti, L., & Shamoon, H. (1996). Oral vanadyl sulfate improves insulin sensitivity in NIDDM but not in obese nondiabetic subjects. Diabetes, 45(5), 659-666.
- Jentjens, R. L., & Jeukendrup, A. E. (2002). Effect of acute and short-term administration of vanadyl sulphate on insulin sensitivity in healthy active humans. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism, 12(4), 470-479.
- Fawcett, J. P., Farquhar, S. J., Walker, R. J., Thou, T., Lowe, G., & Goulding, A. (1996). The effect of oral vanadyl sulfate on body composition and performance in weight-training athletes. International journal of sport nutrition, 6(4), 382-390.
- Van, R. Thienen, K. Proeyen Van, B. Eynde Vanden, Joke Puype, Thomas Lefere, and Peter Hespel. "Beta-alanine improves sprint performance in endurance cycling." Medicine and science in sports and exercise41, no. 4 (2009): 898-903.
- Artioli, G. G., Gualano, B., Smith, A., Stout, J., & Lancha Jr, A. H. (2010). Role of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine and exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 42(6), 1162-1173.
- Smith, A. E., Walter, A. A., Graef, J. L., Kendall, K. L., Moon, J. R., Lockwood, C. M., ... & Stout, J. R. (2009). Effects of β-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 6(1), 5.
- Walter, A. A., Smith, A. E., Kendall, K. L., Stout, J. R., & Cramer, J. T. (2010). Six weeks of high-intensity interval training with and without β-alanine supplementation for improving cardiovascular fitness in women. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(5), 1199-1207.
- Kern, B. D., & Robinson, T. L. (2011). Effects of β-alanine supplementation on performance and body composition in collegiate wrestlers and football players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(7), 1804-1815.
- Sweeney, K. M., Wright, G. A., Brice, A. G., & Doberstein, S. T. (2010). The effect of β-alanine supplementation on power performance during repeated sprint activity. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(1), 79-87.
- Sale, C., Saunders, B., Hudson, S., Wise, J. A., Harris, R. C., & Sunderland, C. D. (2011). Effect of β-alanine plus sodium bicarbonate on high-intensity cycling capacity. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 43(10), 1972-1978.
- Chung, W., Shaw, G., Anderson, M. E., Pyne, D. B., Saunders, P. U., Bishop, D. J., & Burke, L. M. (2012). Effect of 10 week beta-alanine supplementation on competition and training performance in elite swimmers. Nutrients, 4(10), 1441-1453.
Natural Betaine (BetaPower™)
- Apicella, J. M., Lee, E. C., Bailey, B. L., Saenz, C., Anderson, J. M., Craig, S. A., ... & Maresh, C. M. (2013). Betaine supplementation enhances anabolic endocrine and Akt signaling in response to acute bouts of exercise.European journal of applied physiology, 113(3), 793-802.
- Trepanowski, J. F., Farney, T. M., Mccarthy, C. G., Schilling, B. K., Craig, S. A., & Bloomer, R. J. (2011). The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation and associated biochemical parameters in resistance trained men. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(12), 3461-3471.
- Lee, E. C., Maresh, C. M., Kraemer, W. J., Yamamoto, L. M., Hatfield, D. L., Bailey, B. L., ... & Craig, S. A. (2010). Ergogenic effects of betaine supplementation on strength and power performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr,7(1), 27.
- Hoffman, J. R., Ratamess, N. A., Kang, J., Gonzalez, A. M., Beller, N. A., & Craig, S. A. (2011). Effect of 15 days of betaine ingestion on concentric and eccentric force outputs during isokinetic exercise. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(8), 2235-2241.
- Cholewa, J. M., Wyszczelska-Rokiel, M., Glowacki, R., Jakubowski, H., Matthews, T., Wood, R., ... & Paolone, V. (2013). Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone. J Int Soc. Sports Nutr, 10(1), 39.
Glycerol Monostearate (as GlycerPump™)
- Bartos, J. (2013). A uniquely optimized, highly concentrated powdered form of glycerol delivering next-level hydration and next-gen product potential http://astromicnutrition.com/HydroMax_WhitePaper.pdf
- Riedesel, M. L., Allen, D. Y., Peake, G. T., & Al-Qattan, K. (1987). Hyperhydration with glycerol solutions. Journal of Applied Physiology, 63(6), 2262-2268.
- Lyons, T. P., Riedesel, M. L., Meuli, L. E., & Chick, T. W. (1990). Effects of glycerol-induced hyperhydration prior to exercise in the heat on sweating and core temperature. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 22(4), 477-483.
- Goulet, E. D., Robergs, R. A., Labrecque, S., Royer, D., & Dionne, I. J. (2006). Effect of glycerol-induced hyperhydration on thermoregulatory and cardiovascular functions and endurance performance during prolonged cycling in a 25 C environment. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 31(2), 101-109.
- Montner, P., Stark, D. M., Riedesel, M. L., Murata, G., Robergs, R., Timms, M., & Chick, T. W. (1996). Pre-exercise glycerol hydration improves cycling endurance time. International journal of sports medicine, 17(1), 27-33.
- Buford TW, Kreider RB, Stout JR, Greenwood M, Campbell B, Spano M, Ziegenfuss T, Lopez H, Landis J, Antonio J: International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: creatine supplementation and exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2007, 4:6.
- Earnest CP, Snell PG, Rodriguez R, Almada AL, Mitchell TL: The effect of creatine monohydrate ingestion on anaerobic power indices, muscular strength and body composition. Acta physiologica Scandinavica 1995, 153:207-209.
- Kreider RB, Ferreira M, Wilson M, Grindstaff P, Plisk S, Reinardy J, Cantler E, Almada AL: Effects of creatine supplementation on body composition, strength, and sprint performance. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 1998, 30:73-82.
- Lopez, R. M., Casa, D. J., McDermott, B. P., Ganio, M. S., Armstrong, L. E., & Maresh, C. M. (2009). Does creatine supplementation hinder exercise heat tolerance or hydration status? A systematic review with meta-analyses. Journal of athletic training, 44(2), 215-223.
- Candow, D. G., Chilibeck, P. D., Burke, D. G., Mueller, K. D., & Lewis, J. D. (2011). Effect of different frequencies of creatine supplementation on muscle size and strength in young adults. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(7), 1831-1838.
- McConell, G. K., Shinewell, J., Stephens, T. J., Stathis, C. G., Canny, B. J., & Snow, R. J. (2005). Creatine supplementation reduces muscle inosine monophosphate during endurance exercise in humans. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 37(12), 2054.
- Rae, C., Digney, A. L., McEwan, S. R., & Bates, T. C. (2003). Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 270(1529), 2147-2150.
- Benedict, C. R., Anderson, G. H., & Sole, M. J. (1983). The influence of oral tyrosine and tryptophan feeding on plasma catecholamines in man. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 38(3), 429-435.
- Alonso, R., Gibson, C. J., Wurtman, R. J., Agharanya, J. C., & Prieto, L. (1982). Elevation of urinary catecholamines and their metabolites following tyrosine administration in humans. Biological Psychiatry, 17(7), 781-790.
- Agharanya, J. C., Alonso, R., & Wurtman, R. J. (1981). Changes in catecholamine excretion after short-term tyrosine ingestion in normally fed human subjects. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 34(1), 82-87.
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- Marcus, L. R. (2016). Evaluation of the Effects of Alpha Glyceryl Phosphoryl Choline and Caffeine on Strength, Explosive Ability, Cognition and Growth Hormone Levels. University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
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- Ziegenfuss, T., Landis, J., & Hofheins, J. (2008). Acute supplementation with alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine augments growth hormone response to, and peak force production during, resistance exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 5(S1), P15.
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N-Phenethyl Dimethylamine (as Eria Jarensis Extract)
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- Bloomer, R. J., Mccarthy, C. G., Farney, T. M., & Harvey, I. C. (2011). Effect of caffeine and 1, 3-dimethylamylamine on exercise performance and blood markers of lipolysis and oxidative stress in trained men and women. Journal of Caffeine Research, 1(3), 169-177.
- Park, S. K., Jung, I. C., Lee, W. K., Lee, Y. S., Park, H. K., Go, H. J., ... & Rho, S. S. (2011). A combination of green tea extract and l-theanine improves memory and attention in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Journal of medicinal food, 14(4), 334-343.
- Owen, G. N., Parnell, H., De Bruin, E. A., & Rycroft, J. A. (2008). The combined effects of L-theanine and caffeine on cognitive performance and mood. Nutritional neuroscience, 11(4), 193-198.
- Giesbrecht, T., Rycroft, J. A., Rowson, M. J., & De Bruin, E. A. (2010). The combination of L-theanine and caffeine improves cognitive performance and increases subjective alertness. Nutritional neuroscience, 13(6), 283-290.
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- Hapke, HJ, Strathmann, W. (1995). Pharmacological effects of Hordenine. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 1995 Jun;102(6):228-32.
- Frank, M., Weckman, T. J., Wood, T., Woods, W. E., TAI, C. L., CHANG, S. L., ... & Tobin, T. (1990). Hordenine: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and behavioural effects in the horse. Equine veterinary journal, 22(6), 437-441.
Dicaffeine Malate (as Infinergy™)
- Sommerfeld, A., & Witherly, S. (2014). S. Patent No. 8,642,095. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Octopamine HCl (as Octopalean™)
- Visentin, V., Morin, N., Fontana, E., Prévot, D., Boucher, J., Castan, I., ... & Carpéné, C. (2001). Dual action of octopamine on glucose transport into adipocytes: inhibition via β3-adrenoceptor activation and stimulation via oxidation by amine oxidases. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 299(1), 96-104.
- Flechtner-Mors, M., Jenkinson, C. P., Alt, A., Adler, G., & Ditschuneit, H. H. (2002). In vivo α1-adrenergic lipolytic activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese subjects. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 301(1), 229-233.
- Fontana, E., Morin, N., Prévot, D., & Carpéné, C. (2000). Effects of octopamine on lipolysis, glucose transport and amine oxidation in mammalian fat cells. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Pharmacology, Toxicology and Endocrinology, 125(1), 33-44.
- Marti, L., Morin, N., Enrique-Tarancon, G., Prevot, D., Lafontan, M., Testar, X., ... & Carpéné, C. (1998). Tyramine and vanadate synergistically stimulate glucose transport in rat adipocytes by amine oxidase-dependent generation of hydrogen peroxide. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 285(1), 342-349.
Huperzia Serrata Extract
- Brock, R. W., Tschakovsky, M. E., Shoemaker, J. K., Halliwill, J. R., Joyner, M. J., & Hughson, R. L. (1998). Effects of acetylcholine and nitric oxide on forearm blood flow at rest and after a single muscle contraction. Journal of Applied Physiology, 85(6), 2249-2254.
- Witzemann, V., Schwarz, H., Koenen, M., Berberich, C., Villarroel, A., Wernig, A., ... & Sakmann, B. (1996). Acetylcholine receptor ɛ-subunit deletion causes muscle weakness and atrophy in juvenile and adult mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 93(23), 13286-13291.
- Zhao, Q., & Tang, X. C. (2002). Effects of huperzine A on acetylcholinesterase isoforms in vitro: comparison with tacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine and physostigmine. European journal of pharmacology, 455(2-3), 101-107.
- Gul, A., Bakht, J., & Mehmood, F. (2018). Huperzine-A response to cognitive impairment and task switching deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association.