Rhino Rampage has harnessed the energy of a rampaging rhino and packed it into a pre workout! Complete with pre-workout essentials, beta-alanine, advanced Pepform® Citrulline, a huge energy complex, and other ingredient, Rhino Rampage is setting new standards for all pre workouts.
- 3-Aminopropanoic Acid (Beta-Alanine; 2,500mg) – buffers lactic acid and enhances muscular work capacity during high intensity exercise.
- Pepform® Citrulline (2,000 mg) – All the benefits of citrulline in a more advanced delivery system with whey peptides for enhanced absorption!
- Rampage Jungle Energy Matrix (890 mg) – Packed with renowned ingredients, like caffeine (anhydrous & Infinergy™; 450 mg total caffeine), TeaCrine™, Dynamine™, Octopalean™, synephrine, Eria jarensis, & rauwolscine, for unparalleled energy and laser-like focus.
- Amentopump™ (50 mg) – Inhibits PDE; this is the same mechanism as sildenafil (Viagara). As a result, your dilated veins allow blood to flow more freely, giving you monster pumps!
- KannaEase™ (25 mg) – A renowned African herb known for its psychoactive properties providing reduced anxiety and improved performance!
*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
Niacin is a form of Vitamin B3. Vitamin B3 is found in many foods including yeast, meat, fish, milk, eggs, green vegetables, beans, and cereal grains.
- Niacin promotes health in the nervous system, digestive system, skin, hair and eyes.
- Niacin has long been used to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or the “good,” cholesterol. HDL cholesterol helps sweep up low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or the “bad,” cholesterol, in your bloodstream.
- Niacin also helps improve liver function, metabolize food, and helps your adrenal glands produce sex and stress hormones.
- Niacin is also known for increasing blood circulation.
- Blond et al. discovered in 20 men without diabetes but with dyslipidemia, 2g niacin supplementation over the course of eight weeks promoted a reduction in triglycerides (28%) and VLDL (68%) while increasing HDL cholesterol (17%).
Cobalamin (B12) may be the most popular of the B vitamins. Indeed, B12 does help with energy as well as oxygen transport and nervous system function.
- In B12-deficient athletes and ill persons, supplementation with B12 enhances endurance.
- Required for the formation of hemoglobin and prevents pernicious anemia.
- Involved in the replication of DNA.
If we were to rank essential pre workout ingredients, citrulline would be at the top of our list. Because arginine does not survive first pass liver metabolism, citrulline is a better arginine (by conversion recycling) and nitric oxide enhancer, and citrulline has been shown to increase training volume and blood flow.
- May increase maximal training volume nearly 20%, and training volume is the strongest predictor of muscle hypertrophy.
- Improves recovery time between sets, making workouts more efficient.
- Scientific investigations on citrulline have observed that it improves ATP production during exercise over 30% while working synergistically with creatine to improve phosphocreatine resynthesis rates.
- Comparison of Pepform® Citrulline to regular citrulline has shown that Pepform® outperforms by 200%
Norvaline is an isomer of valine that has the function of inhibiting the arginase enzyme.
- Arginine helps increase NO levels and promote vasodilation and pumps.
- Arginase is the enzyme that breaks down arginine, decreasing the amount available to generate NO.
- Supplementing with norvaline extends the effects of other NO boosters and amplifies their vasodilating effects.
AmentoPump is the plant essence of Selaginella tamariscina containing amentoflavone whose “claim to fame” is the ability to directly enhance strength. AmentoPump™ has some very interesting properties, varying from increased fat breakdown to vasodilation, which may also increase the body's ability to get nutrients into muscle cells
Rampage Jungle Energy Matrix
Caffeine is the world’s most popular supplement. It is capable of many things, including increasing metabolic rate and thermogenesis, boosting fat oxidation, enhancing pain tolerance, and improving athletic performance.
- One study in trained athletes found improved power output (7%) and total work performed (8.5%) compared to placebo. More power and more work equals more gains.
- Supplementation with 400mg caffeine (the amount in RIPTX) has been found to increase thermogenesis by 300 Calories per day – potentially eliminating an entire day’s worth of calories over a 1 week span.
- Can improve endurance performance up to 40%.
Infinergy™ Dicaffeine Malate
Infinergy™ provides all of the same great benefits as caffeine anhydrous. However, it’s specialized form with malic acid affords it the benefit of having no crash or jitters.
- Adrenaline, fat oxidation, performance, no crash!
AKA Tyrosine, helps to activate metabolic pathways that adrenaline – which are typically produced during acute stress and “fight or flight” scenarios.
- Adrenaline is quickly depleted during stressful moments due to a lack of L-Tyrosine.
- Supplements including L-tyrosine and caffeine can maintain reaction time and improve subjective feelings of focus and alertness following exhaustive exercise.
- Structurally similar to thyroid hormones and may help in their formation.
A main ingredient in tea and coffee, L-Theanine has structural similarities to neurotransmitters and is often used to compliment caffeine.
- While caffeine is an absolute upper, L-Theanine helps promote relaxation without also promoting drowsiness. In other words, L-Theanine takes the edge off caffeine.
- This results in improved cognition and attention that is additive to either ingredient alone.
- May delay effects of aging
Dimethylethanolamine, or DMAE, is an antioxidant and cognitive support ingredient.
- Helps protect from iron-induced oxidation to provide anti-oxidative effects and maintain cell membrane integrity.
- May be able to improve skin health by decreasing spots and improving elasticity
Synephrine is commonly found in orange peel, and it has a structure similar to ephedrine – one of the most powerful stimulants around.
- Enhances mental stimulation
- Increases energy substrate utilization
Octopamine is a metabolite of synephrine and a stimulant with fat-burning effects.
- Inhibits fat cells’ ability to absorb glucose.
- Increases lipolysis
From Eria Jarensis, N- Phenylethyldimethylamine is believed to produce effects comparable to 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) due to structural similarities. Due to its novelty, reports thus far are anecdotal.
- Enhances mood and focus while providing feelings of euphoria
- Boosts Fat Loss
Theacrine is an alkaloid found in coffee in small quantities. Structurally similar to caffeine, it provides similar benefits but without the adrenaline rush and with greater euphoria.
- Has demonstrated efficacy for improving pain tolerance, enhancing ability to cope with physical stress, such as exercise.
- Improves attention and focus.
- reduces fatigue, and works synergistically with caffeine to improve cognition.
Dynamine is methylliberine – an alkaloid isolated from kucha tea. It is similar to TeaCrine, but it works faster and provides a more intense effect.
- Reported to work in as few as 10 minutes.
- May improve mood, focus, and energy levels.
- One of the actives alkaloids in coffee.
Juglans Regia Extract
Juglans Regia, aka Walnut, contains antioxidants and healthful fatty acids as well as DMAA analogues for fat burning.
- Enhances metabolism and mental focus by stimulating alpha-adrenergic receptors and G-protein coupled receptors.
Nelumbo nucifera is a natural source of hordenine and has an adrenaline-like effect stemming from its ability to release noradrenaline.
- The adrenaline effect is long lasting and does not fade early in your workouts. This will create a boost in athletic performance throughout your entire workout.
Rauwolfia Vomitoria Extract
Rauwolfia Vomitoria is a plant found in Africa that has been used in traditional medicine for heart, cancer, and brain ailments.
- May reduce blood pressure and blood sugar.
- Has been noted to reduce psychosis
- Possibly effective for fat oxidation and attention by virtue of containing yohimbine.
Huperzia Serrata Extract
Huperzia Serrata contains Huperzine A and other analogues of Huperzine, which function as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. This increases the amount of acetylcholine in the body for better mind and muscle function.
- Improves cognition and memory.
- May have neuroprotective effects.
- Increasing acetylcholine in the muscle could strengthen muscle contractions.
Kanna is a psychoactive herb without hallucinogenic or habit-forming properties. It is traditionally used prior to stressful events to curb anxiety and improve performance.
- Inhibits phosphodiesterase 4 in the amygdala to exert antidepressive effects.
- Has been noted to have powerful reductions in anxiety
- Improves cognition and executive functioning during tests
Q: What is the best way to use Rhino Rampage?
A: As a dietary supplement, take 1 serving (2 scoops; 7g) of Rhino Rampage 20-30 minutes prior to your training session. Those with a sensitivity to caffeine or who have not used pre workouts in the past should begin with a single scoop to assess tolerance.
Q: Can I stack any products with Rhino Rampage?
- Elam, M. B., Hunninghake, D. B., Davis, K. B., Garg, R., Johnson, C., Egan, D., … & Brinton, E. (2000). Effect of niacin on lipid and lipoprotein levels and glycemic control in patients with diabetes and peripheral arterial disease: the ADMIT study: a randomized trial. Jama,284(10), 1263-1270.
- Goldberg, A., Alagona, P., Capuzzi, D. M., Guyton, J., Morgan, J. M., Rodgers, J., … & Samuel, P. (2000). Multiple-dose efficacy and safety of an extended-release form of niacin in the management of hyperlipidemia. The American journal of cardiology, 85(9), 1100-1105.
- Guyton, J. R. (2007). Niacin in cardiovascular prevention: mechanisms, efficacy, and safety. Current opinion in lipidology, 18(4), 415-420.
- Blond, E., Rieusset, J., Alligier, M., Lambert-Porcheron, S., Bendridi, N., Gabert, L., ... & Roth, H. (2014). Nicotinic acid effects on insulin sensitivity and hepatic lipid metabolism: an in vivo to in vitro study. Hormone and Metabolic Research, 46(06), 390-396.
- Woolf, K., & Manore, M. M. (2006). B-vitamins and exercise: does exercise alter requirements?. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism, 16(5), 453-484.
- Paulin, F. V., Zagatto, A. M., Chiappa, G. R., & de Tarso Müller, P. (2017). Addition of vitamin B12 to exercise training improves cycle ergometer endurance in advanced COPD patients: A randomized and controlled study. Respiratory medicine, 122, 23-29.
- Lukaski, H. C. (2004). Vitamin and mineral status: effects on physical performance. Nutrition, 20(7-8), 632-644.
- Lövblad, K. O., Ramelli, G., Remonda, L., Nirkko, A. C., Ozdoba, C., & Schroth, G. (1997). Retardation of myelination due to dietary vitamin B 12 deficiency: cranial MRI findings. Pediatric radiology, 27(2), 155-158.
- Pfohl-Leszkowicz, A., Keith, G., & Dirheimer, G. (1991). Effect of cobalamin derivatives on in vitro enzymic DNA methylation: methylcobalamin can act as a methyl donor. Biochemistry, 30(32), 8045-8051.
- Van, R. Thienen, K. Proeyen Van, B. Eynde Vanden, Joke Puype, Thomas Lefere, and Peter Hespel. "Beta-alanine improves sprint performance in endurance cycling." Medicine and science in sports and exercise41, no. 4 (2009): 898-903.
- Artioli, G. G., Gualano, B., Smith, A., Stout, J., & Lancha Jr, A. H. (2010). Role of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine and exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 42(6), 1162-1173.
- Smith, A. E., Walter, A. A., Graef, J. L., Kendall, K. L., Moon, J. R., Lockwood, C. M., ... & Stout, J. R. (2009). Effects of β-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 6(1), 5.
- Walter, A. A., Smith, A. E., Kendall, K. L., Stout, J. R., & Cramer, J. T. (2010). Six weeks of high-intensity interval training with and without β-alanine supplementation for improving cardiovascular fitness in women. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(5), 1199-1207.
- Kern, B. D., & Robinson, T. L. (2011). Effects of β-alanine supplementation on performance and body composition in collegiate wrestlers and football players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(7), 1804-1815.
- Sweeney, K. M., Wright, G. A., Brice, A. G., & Doberstein, S. T. (2010). The effect of β-alanine supplementation on power performance during repeated sprint activity. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(1), 79-87.
- Sale, C., Saunders, B., Hudson, S., Wise, J. A., Harris, R. C., & Sunderland, C. D. (2011). Effect of β-alanine plus sodium bicarbonate on high-intensity cycling capacity. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 43(10), 1972-1978.
- Chung, W., Shaw, G., Anderson, M. E., Pyne, D. B., Saunders, P. U., Bishop, D. J., & Burke, L. M. (2012). Effect of 10 week beta-alanine supplementation on competition and training performance in elite swimmers. Nutrients, 4(10), 1441-1453.
- Bendahan, D., Mattei, J. P., Ghattas, B., Confort-Gouny, S., Le Guern, M. E., & Cozzone, P. J. (2002). Citrulline/malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle. British journal of sports medicine,36(4), 282-289.
- Hickner, R. C., Tanner, C. J., Evans, C. A., Clark, P. D., Haddock, A., Fortune, C., … & Mccammon, M. (2006). L-citrulline reduces time to exhaustion and insulin response to a graded exercise test. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 38(4), 660-666.
- Pérez-Guisado, J., & Jakeman, P. M. (2010). Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(5), 1215-1222.
- Sureda, A., Córdova, A., Ferrer, M. D., Pérez, G., Tur, J. A., & Pons, A. (2010). L-citrulline-malate influence over branched chain amino acid utilization during exercise. European journal of applied physiology, 110(2), 341-351.
- Joy, J. M., Vogel, R. M., Falcone, P. H., Mosman, M. M., Tribby, A. C., Hughes, C. M., ... & Kim, M. P. (2015). A comparison of raw citrulline and citrulline peptide for increasing exercise-induced vasodilation and blood flow. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(1), P18.
- Pokrovskiy, M. V., Korokin, M. V., Tsepeleva, S. A., Pokrovskaya, T. G., Gureev, V. V., Konovalova, E. A., ... & Babko, A. V. (2011). Arginase inhibitor in the pharmacological correction of endothelial dysfunction. International journal of hypertension, 2011.
- Huynh, N. N., Harris, E. E., Chin‐Dusting, J. F. P., & Andrews, K. L. (2009). The vascular effects of different arginase inhibitors in rat isolated aorta and mesenteric arteries. British journal of pharmacology, 156(1), 84-93.
- Ming, X. F., Rajapakse, A. G., Carvas, J. M., Ruffieux, J., & Yang, Z. (2009). Inhibition of S6K1 accounts partially for the anti-inflammatory effects of the arginase inhibitor L-norvaline. BMC cardiovascular disorders, 9(1), 12.
- Bais, S., & Abrol, N. (2016). Review on chemistry and pharmacological potential of amentoflavone. Current research in Neuroscience, 6(1), 16-22.
Rampage Jungle Energy Matrix
- Bellar, D., Kamimori, G. H., & Glickman, E. L. (2011). The effects of low-dose caffeine on perceived pain during a grip to exhaustion task. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(5), 1225-1228.
- Bell, D. G., & McLellan, T. M. (2002). Exercise endurance 1, 3, and 6 h after caffeine ingestion in caffeine users and nonusers. Journal of Applied Physiology, 93(4), 1227-1234.
- Schneiker, K. T., Bishop, D., Dawson, B., & Hackett, L. P. (2006). Effects of caffeine on prolonged intermittent-sprint ability in team-sport athletes. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 38(3), 578-585.
- Del Coso, J., Salinero, J. J., González-Millán, C., Abián-Vicén, J., & Pérez-González, B. (2012). Dose response effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on muscle performance: a repeated measures design. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 9(1), 21.
- Anderson, D. E., & Hickey, M. S. (1994). Effects of caffeine on the metabolic and catecholamine responses to exercise in 5 and 28 degrees C. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 26(4), 453-458.
- Norager, C. B., Jensen, M. B., Weimann, A., & Madsen, M. R. (2006). Metabolic effects of caffeine ingestion and physical work in 75‐year old citizens. A randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, cross‐over study. Clinical endocrinology, 65(2), 223-228.
- Astrup, A., Toubro, S., Cannon, S., Hein, P., Breum, L., & Madsen, J. (1990). Caffeine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of its thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 51(5), 759-767.
Infinergy™ Dicaffeine Malate
- Sommerfeld, A., & Witherly, S. (2014). S. Patent No. 8,642,095. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
- Benedict, C. R., Anderson, G. H., & Sole, M. J. (1983). The influence of oral tyrosine and tryptophan feeding on plasma catecholamines in man. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 38(3), 429-435.
- Neri, D. F., Wiegmann, D., Stanny, R. R., Shappell, S. A., McCardie, A., & McKay, D. L. (1995). The effects of tyrosine on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine.
- Acworth, I. N., During, M. J., & Wurtman, R. J. (1988). Tyrosine: effects on catecholamine release. Brain research bulletin, 21(3), 473-477.
- Alonso, R., Gibson, C. J., Wurtman, R. J., Agharanya, J. C., & Prieto, L. (1982). Elevation of urinary catecholamines and their metabolites following tyrosine administration in humans. Biological psychiatry, 17(7), 781-790.
- Hoffman, J. R., Kang, J., Ratamess, N. A., Hoffman, M. W., Tranchina, C. P., & Faigenbaum, A. D. (2009). Examination of a pre-exercise, high energy supplement on exercise performance. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 6(1), 2.
- Haskell, C. F., Kennedy, D. O., Milne, A. L., Wesnes, K. A., & Scholey, A. B. (2008). The effects of L-theanine, caffeine and their combination on cognition and mood. Biological psychology, 77(2), 113-122.
- Park, S. K., Jung, I. C., Lee, W. K., Lee, Y. S., Park, H. K., Go, H. J., ... & Rho, S. S. (2011). A combination of green tea extract and l-theanine improves memory and attention in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Journal of medicinal food, 14(4), 334-343.
- Zarse, K., Jabin, S., & Ristow, M. (2012). L-Theanine extends lifespan of adult Caenorhabditis elegans. European journal of nutrition, 51(6), 765-768.
- Higashiyama, A., Htay, H. H., Ozeki, M., Juneja, L. R., & Kapoor, M. P. (2011). Effects of l-theanine on attention and reaction time response. Journal of Functional Foods, 3(3), 171-178.
- Einöther, S. J., Martens, V. E., Rycroft, J. A., & De Bruin, E. A. (2010). L-theanine and caffeine improve task switching but not intersensory attention or subjective alertness. Appetite, 54(2), 406-409.
- Nagy, I. Z., & Nagy, K. (1980). On the role of cross-linking of cellular proteins in aging. Mechanisms of ageing and development, 14(1-2), 245-251.
- Uhoda, I., Faska, N., Robert, C., Cauwenbergh, G., & Piérard, G. E. (2002). Split face study on the cutaneous tensile effect of 2‐dimethylaminoethanol (deanol) gel. Skin Research and Technology, 8(3), 164-167.
- Grossman, R. (2005). The role of dimethylaminoethanol in cosmetic dermatology. American journal of clinical dermatology, 6(1), 39-47.
- Seifert, J. G., et al. (2011). Effect of acute administration of an herbal preparation on blood pressure and heart rate in humans. International journal of medical sciences, 8(3), 192.
- Astrup, A., et al. (1991). Thermogenic synergism between ephedrine and caffeine in healthy volunteers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Metabolism, 40(3), 323-329.
- Gougeon, R., et al. (2005). Increase in the thermic effect of food in women by adrenergic amines extracted from Citrus aurantium. Obesity research, 13(7), 1187-1194.
- Haaz, S., et al. (2006). Citrus aurantium and synephrine alkaloids in the treatment of overweight and obesity: an update. Obesity reviews, 7(1), 79-88.
- Et al. (1988). Activities of octopamine and synephrine stereoisomers on α‐British journal of pharmacology, 93(2), 417-429.
- Visentin, V., Morin, N., Fontana, E., Prévot, D., Boucher, J., Castan, I., ... & Carpéné, C. (2001). Dual action of octopamine on glucose transport into adipocytes: inhibition via β3-adrenoceptor activation and stimulation via oxidation by amine oxidases. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 299(1), 96-104.
- Flechtner-Mors, M., Jenkinson, C. P., Alt, A., Adler, G., & Ditschuneit, H. H. (2002). In vivo α1-adrenergic lipolytic activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese subjects. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 301(1), 229-233.
- Fontana, E., Morin, N., Prévot, D., & Carpéné, C. (2000). Effects of octopamine on lipolysis, glucose transport and amine oxidation in mammalian fat cells. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Pharmacology, Toxicology and Endocrinology, 125(1), 33-44.
- Marti, L., Morin, N., Enrique-Tarancon, G., Prevot, D., Lafontan, M., Testar, X., ... & Carpéné, C. (1998). Tyramine and vanadate synergistically stimulate glucose transport in rat adipocytes by amine oxidase-dependent generation of hydrogen peroxide. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 285(1), 342-349.
- Zovico, P. V. C., Curty, V. M., Leal, M. A. S., Meira, E. F., Dias, D. V., de Melo Rodrigues, L. C., ... & Barauna, V. G. (2016). Effects of controlled doses of Oxyelite Pro on physical performance in rats. Nutrition & metabolism, 13(1), 90.
- Bloomer, R. J., Mccarthy, C. G., Farney, T. M., & Harvey, I. C. (2011). Effect of caffeine and 1, 3-dimethylamylamine on exercise performance and blood markers of lipolysis and oxidative stress in trained men and women. Journal of Caffeine Research, 1(3), 169-177.
- Ziegenfuss, T. N., Habowski, S. M., Sandrock, J. E., Kedia, A. W., Kerksick, C. M., & Lopez, H. L. (2017). A two-part approach to examine the effects of theacrine (TeaCrine®) supplementation on oxygen consumption, hemodynamic responses, and subjective measures of cognitive and psychometric parameters. Journal of dietary supplements, 14(1), 9-24.
- Kalman, D. J., Joyner, K. J., & Bloomer, R. J. (2015). Cognitive performance and mood following ingestion of a theacrine-containing dietary supplement, caffeine, or placebo by young men and women. Nutrients, 7(11), 9618-9632.
- Wang, Y., Yang, X., Zheng, X., Li, J., Ye, C., & Song, X. (2010). Theacrine, a purine alkaloid with anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Fitoterapia, 81(6), 627-631.
- Petermann, J. B., & Baumann, T. W. (1983). Metabolic relations between methylxanthines and methyluric acids in Coffea L. Plant physiology, 73(4), 961-964.
- Zheng, X. Q., Ye, C. X., Kato, M., Crozier, A., & Ashihara, H. (2002). Theacrine (1, 3, 7, 9-tetramethyluric acid) synthesis in leaves of a Chinese tea, kucha (Camellia assamica var. kucha). Phytochemistry, 60(2), 129-134.
Juglans Regia Extract
- Catalani, V., Prilutskaya, M., Al-Imam, A., Marrinan, S., Elgharably, Y., Zloh, M., ... & Corazza, O. (2018). Octodrine: new questions and challenges in sport supplements. Brain sciences, 8(2), 34.
- Cohen, P. A., Travis, J. C., Keizers, P. H., Deuster, P., & Venhuis, B. J. (2018). Four experimental stimulants found in sports and weight loss supplements: 2-amino-6-methylheptane (octodrine), 1, 4-dimethylamylamine (1, 4-DMAA), 1, 3-dimethylamylamine (1, 3-DMAA) and 1, 3-dimethylbutylamine (1, 3-DMBA). Clinical toxicology, 56(6), 421-426.
- Barwell, C. J., Basma, A. N., Lafi, M. A. K., & Leake, L. D. (1989). Deamination of hordenine by monoamine oxidase and its action on vasa deferentia of the rat. Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology, 41(6), 421-423.
- Hapke, HJ, Strathmann, W. (1995). Pharmacological effects of Hordenine. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 1995 Jun;102(6):228-32.
- Frank, M., Weckman, T. J., Wood, T., Woods, W. E., TAI, C. L., CHANG, S. L., ... & Tobin, T. (1990). Hordenine: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and behavioural effects in the horse. Equine veterinary journal, 22(6), 437-441.
Rauwolfia Vomitoria Extract
- Bemis, D. L., Capodice, J. L., Gorroochurn, P., Katz, A. E., & Buttyan, R. (2006). Anti-prostate cancer activity of a β-carboline alkaloid enriched extract from Rauwolfia vomitoria. International journal of oncology, 29(5), 1065-1073.
- Campbell, J. I., Mortensen, A., & Mølgaard, P. (2006). Tissue lipid lowering-effect of a traditional Nigerian anti-diabetic infusion of Rauwolfia vomitoria foilage and Citrus aurantium fruit. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 104(3), 379-386.
- Bisong, S. A., Brown, R., & Osim, E. E. (2010). Comparative effects of Rauwolfia vomitoria and chlorpromazine on locomotor behaviour and anxiety in mice. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 132(1), 334-339.
- Yu, J., Ma, Y., Drisko, J., & Chen, Q. (2013). Antitumor activities of Rauwolfia vomitoria extract and potentiation of carboplatin effects against ovarian cancer. Current Therapeutic Research, 75, 8-14.
Huperzia Serrata Extract
- Brock, R. W., Tschakovsky, M. E., Shoemaker, J. K., Halliwill, J. R., Joyner, M. J., & Hughson, R. L. (1998). Effects of acetylcholine and nitric oxide on forearm blood flow at rest and after a single muscle contraction. Journal of Applied Physiology, 85(6), 2249-2254.
- Witzemann, V., Schwarz, H., Koenen, M., Berberich, C., Villarroel, A., Wernig, A., ... & Sakmann, B. (1996). Acetylcholine receptor ɛ-subunit deletion causes muscle weakness and atrophy in juvenile and adult mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 93(23), 13286-13291.
- Zhao, Q., & Tang, X. C. (2002). Effects of huperzine A on acetylcholinesterase isoforms in vitro: comparison with tacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine and physostigmine. European journal of pharmacology, 455(2-3), 101-107.
- Gul, A., Bakht, J., & Mehmood, F. (2018). Huperzine-A response to cognitive impairment and task switching deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association.
- Terburg, D., Syal, S., Rosenberger, L. A., Heany, S., Phillips, N., Gericke, N., ... & Van Honk, J. (2013). Acute effects of Sceletium tortuosum (Zembrin), a dual 5-HT reuptake and PDE4 inhibitor, in the human amygdala and its connection to the hypothalamus. Neuropsychopharmacology, 38(13), 2708.
- Chiu, S., Gericke, N., Farina-Woodbury, M., Badmaev, V., Raheb, H., Terpstra, K., ... & Sanchez, V. (2014). Proof-of-concept randomized controlled study of cognition effects of the proprietary extract Sceletium tortuosum (Zembrin) targeting phosphodiesterase-4 in cognitively healthy subjects: implications for Alzheimer’s dementia. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2014.
- Smith, C. (2011). The effects of Sceletium tortuosum in an in vivo model of psychological stress. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 133(1), 31-36.
California’s Proposition 65 entitles California consumers to special warnings.
WARNING: Cancer and Reproductive Harm - www.P65warnings.ca.gov/